Project Management Case Study Assignment Social Work

These materials provide opportunities to develop and enhance application skills. Each case involves the integration of content across modules, and may be revisited throughout the course of training. The cases present issues encountered in social work practice related to the prevention and treatment of alcohol use disorders. None of the names or descriptions identifies existing individuals or programs.

A social work educator should facilitate the discussions to accomplish the following problem-solving steps:

1. Identify and sort through the relevant facts presented in a case

  • "What is actually happening here?"

2. Identify the problems and issues that arise in a case

  • "What has gone wrong in this situation?"
  • " "What needs to be addressed in order to improve the situation?"

3. Identify the positive and strength aspects of the situation

  • "What has gone right so far?"
  • "What positive elements exist in this situation?"

4. Analyze the issues in terms of knowledge presented in the training modules

  • "What are the factors that are likely related to this situation?"
  • "How do these factors have their influence on the situation?"

5. Use training materials to develop a list of options and an initial plan of action

  • "What has been shown to work in these kinds of situations?"
  • "What options are available?"
  • "What are the likely results of each option?"

6. Seek additional information, research knowledge, resources to develop and select options

  • "What else do we need to find out to make a viable plan?"
  • "Where can we go to get this information?"
  • "What did you find out when you sought this information?"

7. Develop a concrete strategy

  • "What can be tried over the next week/month?
  • "What should be tried in 6 months?"

8. Identify methods for evaluating the outcomes and revising the plan

  • "How will you know if the plan is being implemented adequately?"
  • "How will you know if the plan is working?"
  • "How will you revise the plan based on different possible outcomes?"


TIPS FOR FACILITATING CASE LEARNING

(adapted from McWilliam, 2000)

  • Cases do not have "right" and "wrong" answers-they are dilemmas and complex situations. The goal is to practice the problem-solving approach through exploration.

  • Guide the discussion through the use of open-ended questions
  • Allow the students/trainees to develop the answers to questions (i.e., don't provide them with the answers and be nonjudgmental about what they say to keep them open to working it through)
  • Encourage students/trainees to discuss with each other, rather than with you (this is most likely if students are working in groups of 4-6 persons each with the facilitator circulating)
  • Use visual aids (flipcharts, overheads, storyboards, etc.)
  • Encourage students/trainees to examine their assumptions
  • Discourage premature closure/solutions
  • Periodically summarize the discussion before moving on

 

Reference

McWilliam, P. J. (2000). Instructors Guide for Lives in Progress: Case Stories in Early Intervention. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.


List of Cases

Case 1. The Olivares Family
Case 2. Casey
Case 3. Marcel
Case 4. Sam
Case 5. Steven
Case 6. Alexia
Case 7. Jaclyn
Case 8. Robert
Case 9. Ms. Cook
Case 10. Dave
Case 11. Sal
Case 12. Catherine
Case 13. Coordinated Care Systems (Macro)
Case 14. Mapledale School System (Prevention)
Case 15. Robert

CASE 1. THE OLIVARES FAMILY

Joaquín Olivares, a 38-year-old Mexican immigrant, and his 35-year-old wife presented to a family services agency with the complaint of "family problems." The Olivares have been married for twelve years and they have two children (a son aged 6 and a daughter aged 8). They have lived in the U.S. for eight years. He worked as a machine worker in a factory for five years before being recently "laid off." He presently works as a day laborer. Mrs. Olivares works as a housekeeper for a family.

Mr. Olivares complains that his wife has recently started "to nag" him about his drinking. He admits that during the last few months he has increased his intake of alcohol, but denies that this is a problem for him, as he drinks "only on the weekends, and never during the week." He drinks every weekend, but is vague about the actual amount.

Mr. Olivares and his wife speak of the difficulties they experience in living in the U.S. Neither speaks much English. Mr. Olivares admits to being quite worried about his previous lay off, adding that he didn't want to "let the family down" in his responsibilities. As a result, he works long days in order to make ends meet. His weekend drinking is, for him, his way of relaxing, which he feels that he deserves.

1. Identify and sort through the relevant facts presented by the Olivares.
2. Identify the problems, issues, concerns that arise with the Olivares.
2a. How would you classify Mr. Olivares' drinking?
3. Identify the positive and strengths aspects of the Olivares' situation.
4. Analyze the issues in terms of knowledge presented in the training modules.
5. Use training materials to develop a list of options and an initial plan of action for social work intervention with the Olivares.
6. Identify any additional information, research knowledge, and resources that are needed to develop and select options; identify ways to gather what you need; gather what you can.
7. Develop a strategy for social work practice with the Olivares. Be sure that you have a concrete and specific strategy for how you would address alcohol-related issues with the Olivares. Consider what kinds of reactions you might expect from each of the Olivares, and develop a plan for how to respond to them. What kinds of referrals in your practice community would you make and why? What are the intervention goals?
7a. Does the Olivares' original nationality matter to the case?
8. Identify methods for evaluating outcomes of your plan and next steps/revisions of the plan, depending on various possible outcomes.
9. Discuss implications for community intervention, prevention planning, social policy reform, and advocacy that are associated with the Olivares' situation.

CASE 2. CASEY

Casey, a 24-year-old Caucasian woman, is seeking counseling for anxiety and depression that she attributes to problems in her current relationship. She and her partner have been having an increasing number of arguments recently, typically about Casey's behavior when they go out and about Casey drinking too much.

In response to questions about her use of substances, Casey describes herself as a "social drinker." Her typical pattern is to consume 3-6 drinks during each of 2-3 drinking occasions per week. She began drinking regularly (1-2 times per week) and heavily (to intoxication) at the age of 13, usually in the company of an older cousin or school friends. She continued this pattern through high school but cut back during her first two years of college due to lack of money to buy alcohol and more difficult access.

During her junior and senior years, Casey "came out" as a lesbian to her parents and family. She also resumed drinking heavily. After graduation from college, Casey and her partner of 3 years (Angie, age 24) moved into an apartment together, as both began working full-time. Casey and Angie are "out" at work and with both families of origin.

Casey reports that they both decreased their drinking at this point, due to concerns about their finances and interest in starting their new careers. Both partners gradually increased the frequency and quantity of their drinking, as they became involved with a social group of older (late 30's) lesbians and began routinely going to a gay bar.

1. Identify and sort through the relevant facts presented by Casey.
2. Identify the problems, issues, concerns that arise in Casey's situation.
2a. How would you classify Casey's drinking?
3. Identify the positive and strengths aspects of Casey's situation
4. Analyze the issues in terms of knowledge presented in the training modules.
5. Use training materials to develop a list of options and an initial plan of action for intervention with Casey. Who should be included in your work with Casey, and why? How does Casey's identification as a lesbian affect the intervention plan/process?
6. Identify any additional information, research knowledge, and resources that are needed to develop and select options; identify ways to gather what you need; gather what you can.
7. Develop a strategy for social work practice with Casey. Be sure that you have a concrete and specific strategy for how you would address alcohol-related issues with Casey. Consider what kinds of reactions you might expect from her, and develop a plan for how to respond to them. What kinds of referrals in your practice community would you make and why? What are the intervention goals?
8. Identify methods for evaluating outcomes of your plan and next steps/revisions of the plan, depending on various possible outcomes.
9. Discuss implications for community intervention, prevention planning, social policy reform, and advocacy that are associated with Casey's situation.

CASE 3: MARCEL

Marcel is a 21-year-old African-American man, self-referred for inpatient treatment due to drug and alcohol abuse. He is currently unemployed, homeless, and has charges pending due to a number of "bounced" checks written over the past several months. Marcel reports that both of his parents were drug addicts and he experienced physical, sexual, and emotional abuse throughout childhood at their hands. His father died of liver disease at the age of 37.

Marcel also reports that at the age of 14, he was kicked out of his family's home because his father suspected that he was gay. Although they live in the same town, he has not had any contact with either parent for 7 years. Marcel describes his relationship with his older sister as "fair." Marcel is not presently involved in a steady relationship, but does have a network of friends in the local gay community with whom he has been staying off and on. At the time that he left home, Marcel survived by becoming involved in sexual relationships with older men, many of whom were also abusive. He has had numerous sexual partners (both male and female) over the past 7 years, has traded sex for drugs and money, has had sex under the influence of drugs and alcohol, and has been made to have sex against his will. Marcel identifies himself as bisexual, not gay.

Marcel first used alcohol at age 14, when he had his first sexual encounter with a man. He began using other drugs, including inhalants and marijuana by age 16 and amphetamines and cocaine by age 19. At 21, four months prior to entering treatment, he began using crack.

1. Identify and sort through the relevant facts presented by Marcel.
2. Identify the problems, issues, and concerns that arise in Marcel's situation.
2a. What are the most immediate and critical assessment needs?
3. Identify the positive and strengths aspects of Marcel's situation
4. Analyze the issues in terms of knowledge presented in the training modules.
5. Use training materials to develop a list of options and an initial plan of action for intervention with Marcel. Who should be included in your work with Marcel, and why? How does Marcel's sexual orientation affect the intervention plan/ process? What is your reaction to his being bisexual? How do Marcel's age and ethnicity figure into the picture?
6. Identify any additional information, research knowledge, and resources that are needed to develop and select options; identify ways to gather what you need; gather what you can.
7. Develop a strategy for practice with Marcel. Be sure you have a concrete and specific strategy for how you would address alcohol-related issues. Consider what kinds of reactions you might expect from him, and develop a plan to respond to them. What kinds of community referrals would you make and why? What are the intervention goals?
8. Identify methods for evaluating outcomes of your plan and next steps/revisions of the plan, depending on various possible outcomes.
9. Discuss implications for community intervention, prevention planning, social policy reform, and advocacy that are associated with Marcel's situation.

CASE 4. SAM

You are part of an ethnographic research team with the goal of helping the U.S. Census Bureau find better ways to count the population of homeless individuals and families. Over 12 months, the team has been closely following 156 households as they move in and out of various homeless situations (see Glasser, 1991). In the course of the project, the team has had over 45 separate recorded contacts with an African American man in his fifties, named Sam.

Sam used heroin, cocaine, and alcohol. He suffered from chronic liver disease and various intestinal ailments. He was evicted from public housing because "they didn't like my friends" (referring to the drug dealers) and he was "persona non grata" at the local single room occupancy (SRO) hotel. When the team first met Sam he was sleeping at friends' apartments and in the hotel lobby. A frequent fear of Sam's is that he would fall asleep and be robbed.

The research team became advocates in Sam's quest for housing. At the suggestion of a team member, Sam spent several weeks in a local shelter, but the nuns asked him to leave when he wanted to keep his bed, but spent nights outside of the shelter. The team helped him to get a security deposit that was needed for an apartment. One of the team members went to look at rooms with Sam, and after a full ten months, they found a landlord who would accept him. One of the team members, a fourth year medical student, often called the local hospital to find out the results of laboratory tests for Sam. The team also paid for Sam's birth certificate, which he had lost a long time before, but needed for access to some forms of housing.

Through the 12 months of the study period, Sam went from sleeping in lobbies, at friends' places, in a shelter, and finally in his own room. At the end of the 12 months, Sam told the team that he was very worried about his health because he kept passing out. He said that he was not using "a lot" of drugs or alcohol, but he was not abstinent. He still had his own room.

1. Identify and sort through the relevant facts presented by Sam's situation.
2. Identify the problems, issues, and concerns that arise with Sam's situation.
2a. How would you classify Sam's homelessness?
2b. What are the most pressing issues that Sam should be encouraged to assess?
3. Identify the positive and strengths aspects of Sam's situation.
4. Analyze the issues in terms of knowledge presented in the training modules.
5. Use training materials to develop a list of options and an initial plan of action for social work intervention with Sam, given your current role.
6. Identify any additional information, research knowledge, or resources that are needed to develop and select options; identify ways to gather what you need; gather what you can.
7. Develop a strategy for social work practice with Sam. Be sure that you have a concrete and specific strategy for how you would address issues with Sam. Consider the reactions you might expect from Sam, and develop a plan for how to respond. What kinds of referrals in your practice community would you make and why? What are the intervention goals?
8. Identify methods for evaluating outcomes of your plan and next steps/revisions of the plan, depending on various possible outcomes.
9. Discuss implications for community intervention, prevention planning, social policy reform, and advocacy that are associated with Sam's situation.

CASE 5. STEVEN

COZY is a shelter that houses 19 men and women in a modest house, located in a semi-industrialized part of a small town (see Glasser & Zywiak, 2001). The building was last used as a pizza parlor, and people still come in asking for pizza. The shelter also houses a community soup kitchen and seven additional "Transitional Program" beds for people who stay for up to two years. The people who stay at COZY feel as if they have finally arrived in a place of safety. They feel secure and can sleep safely at night. As a result, they also feel that they can finally begin to address some of their problems.

Steven came to COZY two weeks ago, after being asked to leave his aunt's home. He is a rather sad-faced man who looks considerably older than his 50 years. Steven says that he has been drinking heavily throughout all of his life, and that he also used drugs a lot in Vietnam. He has a son living nearby whom, he is sorry to say, also appears to be a heavy drinker. Steven is very proud of his daughter (she is a teacher), and wishes that he could see his grandchildren more often.

Steven is very grateful to the staff at COZY because in the two weeks that he has been with them, they took him to get a cataract operation and he could immediately see again. They are also helping him sort out his legal problems, since he did not show up for some court hearings. Steven feels that he could stay sober if he could stay in a place like this. He is applying for their transitional program.

1. Identify and sort through the relevant facts presented by Steven's situation.
2. Identify the problems, issues, and concerns that arise with Steven's situation.
2a. How would you classify Steven's homelessness?
3. Identify the positive and strengths aspects of Steven's situation.
4. Analyze the issues in terms of knowledge presented in the training modules.
5. Use training materials to develop a list of options and an initial plan of action for social work intervention with Steven.
6. Identify any additional information, research knowledge, and resources that are needed to develop and select options; identify ways to gather what you need; gather what you can.
7. Develop a strategy for social work practice with Steven. Be sure that you have a concrete and specific strategy for how you would address alcohol issues with Steven. Consider what kinds of reactions you might expect, and develop a plan for how to respond to them. What kinds of referrals in your practice community would you make and why? What are the intervention goals?
8. Identify methods for evaluating outcomes of your plan and next steps/revisions of the plan, depending on various possible outcomes.
9. Discuss implications for community intervention, prevention planning, social policy reform, and advocacy that are associated with Steven's situation.

CASE 6: ALEXIA

Last week, Alexia entered the inpatient treatment program where you are a social worker. She is being treated for alcohol and cocaine (crack) dependence. Alexia is a 32-year-old, divorced woman who is employed as an administrative assistant at a local human services program. She lives with her 11-year-old daughter, Christine, in an apartment located near her job. Although she makes a relatively low salary, Alexia has managed to support herself and her daughter without financial support from Christine's father. Alexia was married briefly to Christine's father when she was 20, but she left him after he became physically and sexually abusive toward her. He also was an alcoholic. She had almost no contact with him for many years. Her mother, a widow, is a strong support for Alexia and Christine, as are two cousins, Denise and Moira. Alexia reports growing up in a "normal middle class family" and states that her childhood was "good" despite her father's occasional drinking binges, which she says were related to him celebrating a special account he had landed (he was in advertising), and her mother's "occasional bad depressions." She is the youngest of five children and the only girl.

Up until a month ago, Alexia was regularly attending twice-weekly treatment sessions at an outpatient chemical dependency clinic, and she went to AA/NA regularly 3 times a week. She had a sponsor and they kept in touch several times a week-more, if needed. From the beginning of recovery, Alexia has experienced some mild depression. She describes having little pleasure in life and feeling tired and "dragging" all of the time. Alexia reports that her difficulty in standing up for herself with her boss at work is a constant stressor. She persisted with treatment and AA/NA, but has seen no major improvement in how she feels.

After Alexia had been sober for about 3 months, an older boy sexually assaulted Christine after school. Alexia supported Christine through the prosecution process; the case was tried in juvenile court and the boy returned to school 2 months later.

After Alexia celebrated her 6-month sobriety anniversary, she reports that she started having a harder time getting herself up each day. Around this same time, she returned to drinking daily. She says that she then started experiencing bouts of feeling worthless, sad, guilty, hopeless, and very anxious. Her sleep problems increased, she began having nightmares, and she lost her appetite. After a month of this, she started attending AA/NA and treatment less often, instead staying home and watching TV. She started her crack use again one night after her boss got very upset with her not finishing something on time. She went to a local bar after work that day and hooked up with a guy she met there to get crack. In accompanying him to a local dealer's house to get some crack, she was raped by several men. Alexia did not return home that night (Christine was at a friend's sleepover party) and did not show up for work the next day. She does not recall where she was the rest of that night. However, later that day she admitted herself to your treatment program.

Alexia reports that she began drinking regularly (several times a week) around the age of 13. She recalls having felt depressed around the same time that she began drinking heavily, although she states she has very few clear memories of that time in her life. Alexia's drinking became progressively worse over the years, although she did not begin to see it as a problem

until after she began using crack, at around age 28. She reports feeling depressed over much of her adult life, however her depression got much worse after she began using crack daily.

Alexia reports having had a lot of gynecological problems during her 20s, resulting in a hysterectomy at age 27. When asked if she was ever physically or sexually abused as a child, she says no; however, she confesses (with some difficulty) that when she was 11, she had an affair with her 35-year-old uncle (father's brother-in-law).

Now, one week into treatment, Alexia reports feeling numb and tense. She talks only in women's treatment groups and, then, only when specifically asked a question. She feels hopeless about her ability to put her life together and says that she only sees herself failing again to achieve sobriety. Of her recent rape, she says that she "only got what she deserved" for being in the wrong place with the wrong people at the wrong time. Alexia reflects that she was unable to adequately protect her daughter from sexual assault, and she speculates that maybe she is an unfit mother and should give up custody of her daughter. While Christine is currently staying with Alexia's mother, Alexia is concerned that her ex-husband will try to get custody of Christine if he hears that she is in the hospital for alcohol and drug treatment. He has been in recovery himself for two years and began demanding to see Christine again about 2 months ago.

1. Identify and sort through the relevant facts presented by Alexia.
2. Identify the problems, issues, and concerns that arise with Alexia's situation.
2a. What are the most pressing issues that Alexia should be encouraged to assess and address?
3. Identify the positive and strengths aspects of Alexia's situation.
4. Analyze the issues in terms of knowledge presented in the training modules.
5. Use training materials to develop a list of options and an initial plan of action for social work intervention with Alexia. Who should be involved in the intervention for Alexia? Who should also be referred for intervention?
6. Identify any additional information, research knowledge, and resources that are needed to develop and select options; identify ways to gather what you need; gather what you can.
7. Develop a strategy for social work practice with Alexia. Be sure that you have a concrete and specific strategy for how you would address alcohol issues. What are the intervention goals? Following inpatient treatment, what kinds of referrals in your practice community would you make and why?
8. Identify methods for evaluating outcomes of your plan and next steps/revisions of the plan, depending on various possible outcomes.
9. Discuss implications for community intervention, prevention planning, social policy reform, and advocacy that are associated with Alexia's situation.

CASE 7: JACLYN

Jaclyn is 23 years old and is four months pregnant. She is visiting a comprehensive "wrap around services" health clinic for prenatal care for the first time. The medical team advises prenatal nutritional counseling and vitamins, and assesses her pregnancy as "progressing normally" at this stage. However, she has been referred to you because in the health assessment she responded that she has "always" consumed one or two drinks, almost every day, when she comes home from work to unwind from the stress of her job. There are also social events on weeknights and weekends with family and friends that typically involve light to moderate drinking.

1. Identify and sort through the relevant facts presented by Jaclyn's situation. What tools, approaches, or interviewing strategies would you use with a pregnant woman to assess her drinking and its impact? What other issues should be assessed, as well?
2. Identify the problems, issues, and concerns that arise with Jaclyn's situation.
2a. What information should you be certain is shared with Jaclyn?
3. Identify the positive and strengths aspects of Jaclyn's situation.
4. Analyze the issues in terms of knowledge presented in the training modules.
5. Use training materials to develop a list of options and an initial plan of action for social work intervention with Jaclyn. Who should be involved in the intervention for Jaclyn?
6. Identify any additional information, research knowledge, and resources that are needed to develop and select options; identify ways to gather what you need; gather what you can.
7. Develop a strategy for social work practice with Jaclyn. Be sure that you have a concrete and specific strategy for how you would address alcohol issues with Jaclyn. What are the intervention goals? What kinds of referrals in your practice community would you make and why?
7a. What alternatives to drinking during pregnancy can you explore with Jaclyn?
8. Identify methods for evaluating outcomes of your plan and next steps/revisions of the plan, depending on various possible outcomes.
9. Discuss implications for community intervention, prevention planning, social policy reform, and advocacy that are associated with Jaclyn's situation.

CASE 8. ROBERT

Robert is a 32-year-old businessman who was involved in a car accident on his way home after having a couple of drinks at the local bar. He was referred for evaluation and treatment because at the time of the accident, his blood alcohol test showed .09, which was above the legal limit. He is overweight and tends to have high blood pressure. He grew up in the neighborhood where he and his wife now live. They have two children, ages 6 and 4 years. Robert has several childhood friends who come to the bar, almost every day during the week, to have drinks and socialize. His father is also a frequent visitor to the bar, and has been for the past 40 years. Robert's father drinks 4 to 5 drinks when he is at the bar, but he does not seem to have any significant problems related to drinking, except for his hypertension. Robert drinks 3 to 5 beers at the bar, but he does not feel that he has any drinking problems because he does not drink at home except for wine with his evening meal.

1. Identify and sort through the relevant facts presented by Robert's situation. What tools or interviewing strategies would you use to assess his drinking and its impact? What do you assess his drinking risk to be? Why?
2. Identify the problems, issues, and concerns that arise with Robert's situation.
2a. What information should you be certain is shared with Robert? Why?
2b. What is your advice to Robert concerning his drinking? Why?
3. Identify the positive and strengths aspects of Robert's situation.
4. Analyze the issues in terms of knowledge presented in the training modules.
5. Use training materials to develop a list of options and an initial plan of action for social work intervention with Robert. Who should be involved in the intervention for Robert?
6. Identify any additional information, research knowledge, and resources that are needed to develop and select options; identify ways to gather what you need; gather what you can.
7. Develop a strategy for social work practice with Robert. Be sure that you have a concrete and specific strategy for how you would address alcohol issues with Robert. What are the intervention goals? What kinds of referrals in your practice community would you make and why?
7a. What alternatives to drinking can you explore with Robert?
8. Identify methods for evaluating outcomes of your plan and next steps/revisions of the plan, depending on various possible outcomes.
9. Discuss implications for community intervention, prevention planning, social policy reform, and advocacy that are associated with Robert's situation.

CASE 9: MS. COOK

Ms. Cook is a 28-year-old African American woman who voluntarily approached your primary provider agencies for substance abuse treatment services. She is currently on probation for shoplifting, passing bad checks, vandalism, and parole/probation violations. She has been charged four times with disorderly conduct, once for fishing without a license, and twice for driving without a license (she never applied for one). She is currently awaiting trial for battery. Ms. Cook has been incarcerated twice during her adulthood (once for 10 months and, most recently, for 10 days).

The results of an AUDIT-13 screening suggested that she was binge drinking weekly during the past year. The screening also determined that, because of drinking/drug use, she had injured herself (2 falls requiring medical care) and someone else (killed the cat by accidental poisoning), and that others had recommended that she seek help. Screening for co-occurring problems using the MPSI-A indicated potential depression and other psychological distress. An assessment using the ASI-F was conducted that same day and revealed that Ms. Cook was currently living with her grandmother, who had raised her. She is the mother of four children (ages 11, 7, 4, 2 years-she was 17 at the birth of her first child). The older two sons are living in foster care. The younger two daughters have complex health problems and developmental delays; they live with another relative. She is no longer in contact with any of the children's fathers (three men), and was only briefly married to the second man. She reported that both of her parents, several uncles and aunts, and both of her siblings all have significant drinking and/or drug use problems. She has no close friends and a distant, conflicted relationship with family members other than the grandmother with whom she has almost always lived. She has great difficulty in "getting along" with people. She was physically abused as a child, which prompted her move to the grandmother's home. Ms. Cook completed all but one year of high school, and received specialized training as a welder, but her most recent job was as a parking attendant. Her longest period of continuous employment was just over one year, and she has worked irregularly throughout her adult life. She describes her present health as "good" and she has a history of depression, anxiety, hallucinations, cognitive and memory deficits, and violent behavior. She has never received psychiatric care.

Ms. Cook identified her primary problem as alcohol use, along with regular marijuana (smoking and eating). She began drinking at age 14 and using marijuana at age 17; she began using crack cocaine from the time she was 22. She has been detoxed on three separate occasions. The longest that she has gone without using any substances was 60 days; she resumed using approximately two months ago. Ms. Cook reported that she was extremely troubled and concerned about her substance use and that seeking treatment is very important to her.

1. Identify and sort through the relevant facts presented by Ms. Cook's situation.
2. Identify the problems, issues, and concerns that arise with Ms. Cook's situation.
2a. What are the most pressing issues that Ms. Cook should be encouraged to address?
3. Identify the positive and strengths aspects of Ms. Cook's situation.
4. Analyze the issues in terms of knowledge presented in the training modules.
5. Use training materials to develop a list of options and an initial plan of action for social work intervention with Ms. Cook.
6. Identify any additional information, research knowledge, and resources that are needed to develop and select options; identify ways to gather what you need; gather what you can.
7. Develop a strategy for social work practice with Ms. Cook. Be sure that you have a concrete and specific strategy for how you would address issues with Ms. Cook. What are the intervention goals? How should the service plan be developed and implemented?
7a. What are the various service components with which Ms. Cook is/should be involved and that must be coordinated? How will they be coordinated? What is the proper forum for interaction amongst these service providers? Who should be involved?
7b. What services are needed but not being received? How will they be obtained?
7c. What are the appropriate roles of each service component?
8. Identify methods for evaluating outcomes of your plan and next steps/revisions of the plan, depending on various possible outcomes. Who should be responsible for monitoring the service plan?
9. Discuss implications for community intervention, prevention planning, social policy reform, and advocacy that are associated with Ms. Cook's situation.
10. How would the situation be different if Ms. Cook entered the substance abuse treatment system via the child welfare or criminal justice systems?

CASE 10. DAVE

Dave is a 38-year-old small-parts factory worker who came into the treatment center after being arrested for drinking and driving (DUI/DWI). His attorney has suggested that he quit drinking and enter treatment, at least until his trial which is scheduled in two months. Dave does not anticipate serving jail time, but he believes that treatment could strengthen his legal case. After his first arrest for DUI two years ago, he simply paid a fine and attended a special driver's education program for six weeks. Dave found the program to be "a waste of time."

Dave has been married for 10 years and has two sons aged 8 and 6 years. He has had numerous arguments with his wife, Melanie, concerning his drinking. He gets very angry and defensive when she confronts him about his heavy drinking, and asserts that he is not an alcoholic. He knows this is true because his father was an alcoholic and Dave says that he is not like his father. His father died as the result of a fight that occurred in traffic when he was drunk. Dave says that his father used to "beat the tar out" of him and his brother when he was drunk, and that his father always belittled, taunted, and threatened their mother, whether he was drunk or sober.

Dave's work history is very good; he misses less than one day per year. He works the day shift on weekdays, putting in time-and-a-half overtime on most Saturdays. He is well regarded by his supervisors and peers at work. He is fearful that his employer will find out about his treatment (it is being covered by his HMO), and that people at work will learn about the second DUI arrest.

Dave drinks with his buddies from the plant, and does not think that his drinking is any more than what they do. He was just "unlucky" and got caught doing what everyone else seems to get away with. Dave's drinking is very predictable: he drinks 8 or 9 beers on a weeknight. Several of these are consumed at the bar with friends, the remainder at home over the course of the evening. He usually falls asleep in front of the television. On weekends, he often drinks 3-4 twelve packs between Friday and Sunday. A typical Saturday involves getting up at 10:00 a.m., playing soccer with friends, and going to the bar for the rest of the day and night. This pattern leads to arguments with Melanie, who calls him a "lousy father." At times, Dave has had unsettling episodes of being unable to recall what happened while drinking. He has commented to friends that "maybe I overdo it a bit." Several times, he has attempted to cut down on his drinking, especially after the last DUI. He once attended a few AA meetings, but did not feel that it was helpful: "It was listening to a lot of guys whining" and he especially did not care for the prayers.

Despite these attempts, Dave has experienced increased consumption levels over the past two years. He admits that, as a result of the drinking, he has become increasingly estranged from his wife and sons. Dave feels that his marriage has been basically good, but that he would not blame Melanie for leaving him, the way things have been going lately. She will no longer "sleep" with him while he is intoxicated, which occurs regularly. She complains that the house is "falling apart" because Dave does not keep up with his chores. He believes that his marriage would become solid again, if he stopped over doing the drinking. But, he complains about her hassling him about the alcohol.

Dave is not close to his remaining family members. His mother is very religious and wishes Dave would see religion as a way out of his problems. His siblings live in other communities and they rarely get together. His wife and sons regularly attend his mother's church, but Dave only attends on Christmas Eve and Easter Sunday.

Dave is distraught about having to remain abstinent in preparation for the trial. He has trouble getting to sleep without alcohol. He also "gets jumpy" when he tries to stay away from drinking, feeling "closed in" or "like he is suffocating." He also cannot imagine how to explain to his buddies why he is not joining them in the bars.

1. Identify and sort through the relevant facts presented by Dave's situation. What tools or interviewing strategies would you use to assess his drinking and its impact? What do you assess his drinking risk to be? Why?
2. Identify the problems, issues, and concerns that arise with Dave's situation.
2a. What information should you be certain is shared with Dave? Why?
2b. What is your advice to Dave concerning his drinking? Why?
2c. How would you assess motivational issues prior to and during the course of intervention with Dave?
3. Identify the positive and strengths aspects of Dave's situation.
4. Analyze the issues in terms of knowledge presented in the training modules.
5. Use training materials to develop a list of options and an initial plan of action for social work intervention with Dave. What are reasonable outcomes to be expected with Dave? Who should be involved in the intervention for Dave? Why?
6. Identify any additional information, research knowledge, and resources that are needed to develop and select options; identify ways to gather what you need; gather what you can.
7. Develop a strategy for social work practice with Dave. Be sure that you have a concrete and specific strategy for how you would address alcohol issues. What are the intervention goals? What kinds of referrals in your practice community would you make and why?
7a. What measures and procedures would you employ to formulate and negotiate goals with Dave?
7b. How would you apply motivational, cognitive behavioral, and relationship therapy approaches with Dave?
8. Identify methods for evaluating outcomes of your plan and next steps/revisions of the plan, depending on various possible outcomes.
9. Discuss implications for community intervention, prevention planning, social policy reform, and advocacy that are associated with Dave's situation.
10. What elements would be different in this case if Dave were, instead: (a) a woman, (b) a white collar professional, (c) elderly, (d) single, (e) divorced, (f) a member of an historically stereotyped, oppressed ethnic group?

CASE 11. SAL

Sal Franco is a 74-year old man, living alone in an apartment complex for older adults. You are the Senior Services social worker associated with the housing units. Sal and his wife, Maria, owned and operated a small, local grocery for 44 years (they emigrated from Italy when they were newlyweds at age 19). They sold the business to their son Dominic when Sal turned 70. The plan was to enjoy travel and retired life together. However, shortly after retiring, Maria was diagnosed with an aggressive leukemia, and she died within 4 months. Mr. Franco has been living alone for over 3 years. Because Sal and Maria spent most of their time working and involved with family activities, there are few close friends in his life. Dominic's family has Sal to dinner every Sunday, but has little time during the week because of competing demands. Sal's other children include a daughter living in another state who calls daily (but seldom visits because of the cost), a daughter oversees in military service, and a son with Down's Syndrome who lives in a group home about an hour away.

Sal indicates that he was a "hard drinker" during his 20s and 30s, when he developed stomach problems and high blood pressure. At that point, he limited his use of alcohol to his Friday night poker club and to Sunday dinner with the family. Since Maria's death, Sal has regularly consumed 3 to 4 drinks a day. He says it alleviates some of the pain, stress, and loneliness. It also helps him sleep, along with the over-the-counter medications that he takes for arthritis pain and as sleep aides. He came to the clinic because his hypertension and gastritis have become extremely labile and intractable. When you ask Mr. Franco how he is doing, he says, "Oh, I guess I'm okay for an old widower. I don't think it really matters how I feel or what I do anymore at my age."

1. Identify and sort through the relevant facts presented by Sal Franco's situation. What tools would you use to assess his drinking and its impact? What do you assess his drinking risk to be? Why?
2. Identify the problems, issues, and concerns that arise with Sal's situation.
2a. What information should you be certain is shared with Sal? Why?
2b. What is your advice to Sal concerning his drinking? Why?
2c. What other assessments need to be conducted? Why?
3. Identify the positive and strengths aspects of Sal's situation.
4. Analyze the issues in terms of knowledge presented in the training modules.
5. Use training materials to develop a list of options and an initial plan of action for social work intervention with Sal. Who should be involved in the intervention for Sal?
6. Identify any additional information, research knowledge, and resources that are needed to develop and select options; identify ways to gather what you need; gather what you can.
7. Develop a strategy for social work practice with Mr. Franco. Be sure that you have a concrete and specific strategy for how you would address alcohol issues with him. What are the intervention goals? What kinds of referrals in your practice community would you make and why? What additional activities would you help him initiate?
7a. What alternatives to drinking can you explore with Sal?
7b. What other services or programs should be engaged for Sal? How?
7c. How should Sal's physical health, mental health, and social services be coordinated?
8. Identify methods for evaluating outcomes of your plan and next steps/revisions of the plan, depending on various possible outcomes.
9. Discuss implications for community intervention, prevention planning, social policy reform, and advocacy that are associated with Mr. Franco's situation.

CASE 12. CATHERINE

Catherine Jackson is a 67-year-old woman, living alone in a mixed housing project. For the past month, she has received visiting nurse services from your agency. These services were assigned to her upon discharge from the hospital with a diagnosis of anemia and uncontrolled adult-onset diabetes. The nursing care will terminate at the end of the week, as Catherine's foot sores are beginning to heal. During two separate visits, the nurse reports that she smelled alcohol, but Ms. Jackson did not appear to be intoxicated. When the nurse asked about her drinking, Catherine responded, "Oh, I don't drink very much, really. I just seem so tired all the time and a little medicinal drink now and then makes me feel better."

A homemaker visits Ms. Jackson two times per week. In addition, she has an elderly friend nearby, and the two women visit with each other daily. However, for the past two months, Catherine has been unable to leave her apartment because of her poor health. The homemaker states that she has, on several occasions, had to launder Ms. Jackson's bedding and sleep wear because of vomit on them. She also takes out the trash, which contains varying numbers of empty hard liquor bottles each time. The homemaker complains that Catherine is not cleaning herself very well, and that she and the apartment smell bad. She doesn't want to keep working there, and wants to be reassigned to someone else.

1. Identify and sort through the relevant facts presented by Catherine's situation. What tools or interviewing strategies would you use to assess her drinking and its impact? What do you assess her drinking risk to be? Why?
2. Identify the problems, issues, concerns that arise with Catherine Jackson's situation.
2a. What other assessments need to be conducted?
2b. What is your advice to Catherine concerning her drinking? Why?
3. Identify the positive and strengths aspects of Catherine's situation.
4. Analyze the issues in terms of knowledge presented in the training modules.
5. Use training materials to develop a list of options and an initial plan of action for social work intervention with Ms. Jackson. Who should be involved in the intervention for her?
6. Identify any additional information, research knowledge, and resources that are needed to develop and select options; identify ways to gather what you need; gather what you can.
7. Develop a strategy for practice with Catherine Jackson. Be sure that you have a concrete and specific strategy for how you would address alcohol issues with her. What are the intervention goals? What kinds of community referrals would you make and why?
7a. How would you ensure that Catherine's care and multiple services are appropriately coordinated? Who should be in charge of coordination?
8. Identify methods for evaluating outcomes of your plan and next steps/revisions of the plan, depending on various possible outcomes.
9. Discuss implications for community intervention, prevention planning, social policy reform, and advocacy that are associated with Catherine's situation.

CASE 13: COORDINATED CARE SERVICES (MACRO)

Your State Chapter of NASW is hosting a one-day "round table" session to which members of substance abuse treatment and advocacy agencies are invited, and you are the chairperson. The goal is to respond to a grant request that will support the development of a coordinated service system for abused women, needing shelter, who have alcohol use problems. The first set of tasks includes:

  • Identify the necessary participants (service providers) of the coordinated system;
  • Determine who will be responsible for the prescreening, screening, assessment, treatment, and evaluation responsibilities;
  • Determine who will make referrals, to whom they will make them, and under what circumstances;
  • Identify the community service partners that will serve as additional resources, act as supportive adjuncts, and will also serve as entry points by conducting the appropriate prescreening assessments for clients that come to them (e.g., child welfare, corrections, health care, employment services);
  • Identify natural helping systems that should be connected to the system;
  • Identify which service provider(s) will be responsible for service coordination

Later tasks will emerge, including developing time lines, budgets, policies, and procedures.

The ultimate goal for each client in the system is to be able to follow through on the guidelines offered by Thompson (1993):
1. List all services that the client receives from each agency involved;
2. Identify key agencies and services needed but not represented;
3. Establish a contact person within each agency;
4. Agree on a structure for the case planning group;
5. Define the roles and responsibilities of each agency;
6. Monitor the implementation of the care plan;
7. Periodically evaluate the relevance and effectiveness of the plan.

CASE 14. MAPLEDALE SCHOOL SYSTEM (PREVENTION)

You have been asked to consult with a group from the Mapledale School system, comprised of business people, police, social workers, teachers, parents, administrators, and student representatives (Middle School, High School, and Community College). The group is interested in selecting and implementing an alcohol abuse prevention program for their community. They want you to advise them on how to go about selecting the best program(s) to invest in-they are not interested in having you pick their programs, only in advising them as to what to look for.

Develop a presentation that will educate the decision makers and help them to make informed decisions about prevention planning. Remember that prevention does not only mean primary prevention with youth, it also means secondary and tertiary prevention, and includes older individuals, as well.

CASE 15. ROBBIE

Robbie J., a 19-year-old white male and first-year college student, suffered a significant brain injury 6 months ago as a result of a car accident. Robbie had been partying at a friend's house and left about 1:00 a. m. Driving home, he missed a curve in the road and rolled his car. Robbie's parents knew that their son drank "occasionally," but they never thought he had a "problem." They had purchased a car for him and warned him of the dangers of drinking and driving.

Prior to the accident, Robbie had been a gregarious young man. In high school he had been a good student, popular, and played on the football team. Robbie loved skiing, skin diving, and riding dirt bikes. Robbie's rehabilitation has been arduous. His parents are still in disbelief. Robbie's father is a prominent corporate attorney, and Robbie had always expressed a desire to follow the same career path. Robbie's mother divided her time between caring for her husband and son and her volunteer work on behalf of abused and neglected children in the community. Since his injury, Robbie's mother has spent most of her time caring for him and participating in his rehabilitation. His father is spending longer hours at work and misses the time he spent hunting, fishing, and playing golf with his son. Though supportive at first, his friends are calling less and less and rarely come around.

Both parents were stunned to learn that Robbie and some of his friends got drunk nearly every weekend. This information surfaced during a family counseling session conducted by a social worker on the rehabilitation team who had recently attended a seminar on screening and brief intervention for alcohol and other drug problems. Robbie's parents had a hard time believing it was true, but after questioning Robbie's friends, they learned that this was indeed the situation.

The brain damage Robert sustained has affected his impulse control and decreased his short-term memory and ability to concentrate. Robbie's emotional affect is labile. At times he laughs out loud; the next moment he may be crying. He has limited insight into his own behavior and how he has changed, so it is difficult for him to understand why his friends and family react to him differently now. Very few things sustain Robbie's attention; even watching TV is not pleasurable. The muscle weakness on his right side limits his ability to participate in many of the athletic activities he enjoyed previously.

Robbie is on an emotional roller coaster. At one level he knows that his plans for the future have to change. At another level, he cannot accept these limitations. He wants things to be the way they were. His condition makes it impossible for him to return to a successful college experience. He resents his parents' constant supervision, and feels that they are "treating him like a baby." He says no girl will want to date him with this kind of interference. Most of his friends are back at college, so he has begun to hang out with a younger group and drink again. Robbie is frustrated with the difficulty he has in remembering, expressing himself, and concentrating. He is restless and agitated sometimes, both as a result of his frustration and the organic aspect of his injuries. Robbie's parents can afford high quality treatment, but Robbie does not always comply with the treatment regimen.

  1. What are the relevant facts in Robbie's case (e.g., "What is actually happening here")?
  2. Identify the problems and issues that are arising in Robbie's case (e.g., What has gone wrong in this situation?" and "What needs to be addressed in order to improve the situation?")
  3. Identify the positive and strengths aspects of the situation (e.g., "What has gone right so far?" and "What positive elements exist in this situation?")
  4. Analyze the issues in terms of knowledge presented in the training modules (e.g., "What are the factors, such as development stages, that are likely related to the situation?" and, "How do these factors influence the situation?")
  5. Use training materials to develop a list of options and an initial plan of action (e.g., "What has been shown to work in these kinds of situations where substance abuse and a traumatic brain injury are involved?" and "What options are available?" and "What are the likely results of each option?")
  6. Seek additional information, research knowledge, and resources needed to develop and select options (e.g., What else do we need to find out to make a viable plan for Robbie and his parents?" and "Where can we go to get this information?" and "What did you find out when out when you sought this information? Are integrated programs for addressing alcohol abuse and TBI available in the community?")
  7. Develop a concrete strategy for Robbie and his parents (e.g., "What can be tried over the next weeks/months? How can you help the parents come to terms with the situation? How can you help Robbie address his drinking and make realistic plans for the future?")
  8. Identify methods for evaluating the outcomes and revising the plan (e.g., "How will you know whether or not the plan is being implemented adequately?" and "How will you know if the plan is working?" and "How will you revise the plan based on different possible outcomes?")

*Instructors may wish to revise this case in terms of the client's gender, age, ethnicity, family socioeconomic status and access to treatment resources, functional area(s) of the brain affected and severity of the brain injury (for information, see the website of the Brain Injury Association of America: http://www.biausa.org/), or other factors. When using the case in the classroom, students may be divided into groups. Each group can be given a different set of client characteristics. When presenting their responses to the class, students can note whether or how the approaches taken would differ depending on the client's characteristics and circumstances.

Updated: March 2005

January 27th, 2017

Case Studies in Sustainable Social Work: MSW Students Explore Principles in Practice

By Kevin Jones, Lindsay Merritt, Ashley Brown, Shelby Davidson, Diana Nulliner, Jennine Smart, Lisa Walden and Nick Winges-Yanez

Link to Deepening Our Craft February 2017 JSE TOC

Jones Merritt Brown Davidson Nulliner Smart Walden Winges-Yanez JSE February 2017 General Issue PDF

Social workers have been considering the implications of sustainability for social work theory, practice, and education for more than two decades (Hoff & McNutt, 1994). In 1999, the National Association of Social Workers (NASW) in the United States published a policy statement on the environment that acknowledged the social work profession’s apparent “lack of interest” in environmental issues, and called for a new urgency among social workers to address the challenges of pollution, environmental contamination, and resource depletion (NASW, 2006, p. 136). The NASW statement also recognized the disproportionate effects of environmental destruction on the health and well-being of already marginalized and disadvantaged groups, drawing an explicit link between environmental concerns and social work’s stated commitment to promoting social and economic justice.

Despite the NASW’s call for urgency and the increasing certainty of widespread social and environmental crises due to climate change, the integration of ecological concepts into mainstream social work education and practice has been slow and sporadic. Only recently have some social workers begun to openly discuss a re-centering of social work within a sustainability paradigm, emphasizing the importance of interconnectedness among humans and the natural world, interdisciplinary alliances and partnerships, and holistic justice-focused practice (Coates & Gray, 2012; Heinsch, 2012; Kemp, 2011; McKinnon, 2008; Miller, Hayward, & Shaw, 2013; Norton, 2012; Peeters, 2012; and Schmitz, Matyok, Sloan & James, 2012). Coates (2004) called for social workers to abandon the modernist paradigm that pits humans versus nature and celebrates competition, individualism, and dualism in favor of a more ecologically responsive approach that recognizes the interconnectedness of all life on Earth, responds to the interaction of systems at all levels, and honors the existence of multiple ways of being and knowing. Mary (2008) suggests that social workers are uniquely positioned to catalyze changes to support more sustainable practices and policies:

As one of the only professions charged with environmental as well as individual change, social work should take a lead in these kinds of dialogues at the community, national, and global levels. We have expertise, in both micro and macro systems, in bringing various interest groups to the table to confront problems and, through dialogues and consensus, to design a strategy to address them (p. 86).

Jones (2010) believes an action-oriented approach to social work education can provide transformative experiences for students that highlight the importance of understanding ecological systems and the potential negative impacts of degrading those systems on human and community health and wellness, as well as the urgency of integrating environmental concerns in social work practice settings. Grise-Owens and Miller (2014) argue that we need to challenge conventional thinking about social work practice and integrate meta-practice into social work education. Meta-practice in social work incorporates, “global social aspects that both overarch and interact with macro, mezzo, and micro practice” (Grise-Owens and Miller, 2014, p. 47). A shift toward a global way of thinking can help propel social work education beyond the relatively narrow focus programs have adopted in response to dominant neoliberal forces that tend to privilege professionalization, market-based solutions, individual concerns, and clinically-oriented work (Reisch, 2013).

McKinnon (2008) identified several barriers that prevent social workers from integrating sustainability principles into practice, including a lack of sustainability-related literature in social work journals, few professional development opportunities related to sustainable practices, and very few case examples of successful application of sustainability principles. However, despite the slow progress of integrating more ecologically-oriented theories and concepts into social work education, it seems the lack of materials, opportunities, and applications related to sustainability in social work is finally beginning to change (Grise-Owens, Miller, & Owens, 2014; Miller, Hayward, & Shaw, 2013).

In 2010, the theme of the 56th Annual Program Meeting of the Council for Social Work Education (CSWE) in the U.S. was “Promoting Sustainability in Social Work,” featuring more than 25 lectures, workshops, and other sessions directly related to sustainability in social work education and practice. Presentations addressed all levels of practice and introduced topics relevant to many different contexts, including global human rights policy (Hawkins, Norton, & Noble, 2010), international graduate education (Decker, 2010), critical indigenous pedagogies (Trinidad, 2010), sustainable practice in gerontology (Mudd & Eastridge, 2010), and the role of youth mentoring in promoting social sustainability (Jones, Keller, & Ossowski, 2010). This event signaled the presence of a significant commitment among some social work faculty and researchers to establish sustainability as a primary area of concern for the discipline and field.

There are a number of compelling examples of recent sustainability initiatives in social work education that show promise for advancing the field’s movement toward sustainability. The School of Social Work at Western Kentucky University is working with their students to more thoroughly consider the global context of social work. To do this, the school expanded on the “Integrative Practice Concentration” to include meta-practice and then implemented a meta-practice curriculum component which requires students to self-assign to one of four meta-practice groups. The groups are then responsible for exploring identified meta-topics (such as “peace and war” or “consumerism and poverty”) to culminate in a presentation at the end of the semester (Grise-Owens, Miller & Owens, 2014). Two important elements of these efforts are highlighting the ways that sustainability theories, principles, and goals are directly relevant to social work, and providing specific examples of issues and contexts that could and would be addressed by sustainability-oriented practice. Until sustainability initiatives like the ones described here are successfully integrated into all aspects of social work education, it is important to offer focused opportunities for students to have exposure to and experiment with sustainability-related concepts.

This paper explores the potential for a case study assignment in a Master of Social Work (MSW) program to help make explicit connections between sustainability concepts introduced in the classroom and the practical application of these concepts in a wide range of social work practice settings. The following sections provide a description of the class and the assignment, discuss the elements of case study that make it a compelling approach for this project, and introduce the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) G3.1, a sustainability assessment and reporting framework that students used as one frame of reference for their analyses. Then, abridged versions of three student case studies from the Winter 2012 Sustainability and Social Work class at Portland State University are presented to illustrate the potential value and versatility of the assignment for teaching social work graduate students about sustainability. Finally, the discussion section identifies some of the major advantages of the case study assignment for students, several limitations of the approach, and describes some implications for the future of social work education.

The Class

Sustainability and Social Work, a three-credit elective course in the Master of Social Work (MSW) program at Portland State University, offered students an opportunity to critically engage with sustainability concepts and their potential and actual applications in social work theory, research, and practice. Students in the course examined the environmental, economic, social, and cultural dimensions of sustainability; developed their own working definitions of sustainability in social work; explored a wide range of topics and issues related to sustainability at the local, regional, national, and global levels; and engaged in critical discussions regarding the roles that social workers can play in establishing just and sustainable societies now and for generations to come. For the class’s culminating project, each student completed a case study of an organization, program, or initiative using a sustainability assessment framework in a social work context.

The Assignment

Case study has some distinctive features that make it well-suited for social inquiry (Stake, 1978). First, case studies make use of multiple sources of data, including observations, interviews, and document reviews, so a range of perspectives are thoroughly considered as the researcher explores the case at hand (Yin, 2013). Case studies also reflect a researcher’s subjectivity and positionality (Chiseri-Strater, 1996), which is particularly beneficial for student researchers who can examine the ways that their personal experiences and beliefs influence their analysis of a case—in this instance, the sustainable practices and potential of a program or agency. Case studies are also often presented in ways that are understandable for general audiences, making the results of the study easier to share with classmates, participants, and community stakeholders when appropriate.

Student case studies in the Winter 2012 Sustainability and Social Work class focused on traditional social work practice settings (e.g. addictions treatment and recovery services, a youth mentoring program) as well as organizations that challenge traditional conceptualizations and boundaries of the social work profession (e.g. an environmental justice organization, a for-profit female- and earth-friendly sex shop). Students were encouraged to explore aspects of each case that exemplified sustainability principles in action as well as those that highlighted challenges in implementing policies and practices that support sustainability in the field. Each case study provided an outline of the case study methods used and included descriptions of the sustainability definitions and frameworks that guided analyses. The result was 15 different approaches to 15 very different programs, and each paper represented a unique contribution to the discussion of what the application of sustainability principles looks like in the field currently, and the promise that more sustainable practices hold for the future of social work practice.

Sustainability Frameworks

Students were instructed to conduct the analysis of their case based on the sustainability concepts presented in class as well as their own evolving definitions of sustainability. The class was also provided a number of formal sustainability frameworks that could be used to plan, organize, and otherwise guide data collection, analysis, and reporting. The first of these frameworks was the Global Reporting Initiative’s (GRI) G3.1 framework, which was developed to assist organizations—including corporations, nonprofit organizations, and local and regional municipalities—in providing better transparency and more comprehensive accounting of the social, environmental, and economic impacts of their operations. The G3.1 is the most widely used set of guidelines for assessing and reporting sustainability performance globally (Roca & Searcy, 2012). Several other commonly used assessment frameworks were introduced as well, including the ISO 26000 from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and AccountAbility’s AA1000.

One of the primary advantages of the G3.1, for organizations conducting sustainability assessments as well as for students using it for the case study assignment, is its inclusion of Indicator Protocols, which define specific sustainability indicators across environmental, social, and economic categories, and provide instructions on what and how to measure. Another significant advantage of the G3.1 is the Sector Supplements that address issues and concerns of specific industries, such as media, oil and gas, financial services, and nonprofit organizations, providing additional indicators relevant to operations and stakeholders in those industries. While the G3.1 provides reporting principles and indicators, both the ISO 26000 and the AA1000 provide only guiding principles for reporting and rely on organizations to identify assessment categories and metrics. For students previously unfamiliar with sustainability assessment, the G3.1 provides a level of detail and guidance that makes it relatively user-friendly. The G3.1 and the Sector Supplements are also free and available to download from the GRI website (www.globalreporting.org.), making access for students convenient and economical.

The Case Studies

The three case studies presented in the following sections are abridged versions of original papers submitted for the final project of the Winter 2012 Sustainability and Social Work class. These papers were chosen based on several criteria, including the interest of the student in sharing their work publicly, the quality of the case study and final paper, and the uniqueness and potential importance of the paper for furthering dialogue on sustainability in social work practice. The agencies considered in the following sections represent a very small fraction of the activities and efforts of social workers and the social work profession, but we hope that the pieces chosen for inclusion here will inspire debate and discussion about what sustainable social work practice is, what it looks like in action, and what it can do to help social workers, and the clients and communities they serve, to achieve their goals. Table 1 below provides an overview of the three case studies, highlighting how each agency addressed the environmental, social, and economic dimensions of sustainability in their programs and practices.

Table 1. Dimensions of Sustainability Addressed by Three Case Studies

*Name of the shop has been changed to protect confidentiality

Case Study 1: Central City Concern

Submitted by Lindsay N. Merritt, MSW

In the 1970’s, Old Town/China Town in downtown Portland, Oregon was a hot spot for alcoholism and cheap rent, making Portland’s inebriate problem among the worst in the nation (Central City Concern, n.d.). In response to the growing problem of alcoholism in downtown Portland, the Burnside Consortium was created by the City of Portland and Multnomah County, with the purpose of administering a National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (NIAAA) Public Inebriate grant (Central City Concern, n.d.). The Consortium’s early work focused on alcohol recovery treatment and affordable housing management and rehabilitation. Central City Concern (CCC) adapted its programming accordingly when recovery services were extended in the 1980s to include those addicted to heroin and crack cocaine. Additionally, CCC’s affordable housing portfolio continued to increase and they began to offer alcohol and drug-free housing to support the recovery efforts of individuals and their families. To further support increased client self-sufficiency, CCC added employment training and work opportunity programs in the early 1990s (Central City Concern, n.d.).

Social & Economic Sustainability

Equity, diversity, and interconnectedness are key principles of social sustainability that support self-determination and self-sufficiency (McKenzie, 2004). Today, CCC provides mental, behavioral, and medical health care to many of Portland’s residents living in the metro area who are experiencing homelessness, poverty, and addiction. The organization’s mission, “providing comprehensive solutions to ending homelessness and increasing self-sufficiency,” is reflected in their efforts to increase access to integrated health services, safe and affordable housing, and recovery programming. They also continue to advocate at the legislative and policy levels for expanded services to meet growing demand.

Historically, individuals experiencing severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI) have extensive criminal justice involvement and frequent hospitalizations (Markowitz, 2006; Swartz & Lurigio, 2007). Central City Concern’s programs have social and economic implications that promote sustainability by reducing the over-utilization of emergency services and criminal justice involvement, both of which are costly to society (Garske & Williams, 1999; Karp & Tanarugsachock, 2000; Markowitz, 2006; Swartz & Lurigio, 2007). CCC’s programming further promotes economic sustainability by supporting client self-sufficiency and self-determination through creative problem solving and skills building. For example, the Community Outreach, Recovery, and Engagement (CORE) team at the Old Town Recovery Center (OTRC) utilizes the Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) model in their work with clients experiencing co-occurring diagnoses of SPMI and addiction. The CORE team provides a multi-dimensional approach to supporting clients. The team includes an employment specialist, housing case managers, and mental health, alcohol, and drug counselors. This approach is intended to assist clients in stabilization and recovery through employment and/or volunteer opportunities, safe and affordable housing, and guided support in medication and mental health management.

Moreover, the purpose of skill building and problem solving with clients through the CORE team is to encourage self-determination and self-sufficiency by strengthening coping skills. One of the main skill building activities is safety planning to avoid crisis situations. This activity requires the client to find appropriate alternatives to going to the emergency department, calling emergency phone numbers, and having police contact. The major success of CCC programming is that services focus less on amelioration of problems and more on creating multi-level individual, community, and programmatic sustainability.

Conclusion

Social service organizations like Central City Concern are good illustrations of sustainability in practice because they are intentionally instituting sustainability principles throughout their programming, even if they are not explicitly calling their actions sustainability. This intentionality demonstrates acknowledgement and understanding of the intersectionalities that exist in the lives of the individuals and families CCC serves, and the resources necessary to promote and nurture multi-level sustainability in support of effective and responsive social programming.

Case Study 2: Get Lucky: A Female-Friendly Sex Shop as Sustainable Social Work Practice

Submitted by Ashley N. Brown, MSW

Sex. A word that holds great power and inspires passionate reactivity. Sex signifies gender expression, identity, femininity, masculinity, personal pronouns, and so much more. In an effort to address the neglected intersection of sexual diversity and sustainability, Get Lucky (name of the shop has been changed to protect confidentiality) is a local sex boutique which caters to the multiplicity of sexual identities found within the general population—and also reflects principles and values through their commercial and community ventures that are consistent with sustainable social work practice.

Mary (2008) outlines several principles that are necessary to practice sustainability from a business perspective, including valuing both human and nonhuman beings, social justice, economic responsibility, community involvement, and environmentally secure practices. Get Lucky successfully translates many of these tenets into practice. Get Lucky puts sexual health and freedom of sexual expression—critical subject matters too often neglected, marginalized, and exploited by mainstream sex shops—on the forefront.

Case Description and Sustainability Narratives

As a social worker and recent graduate from an MSW program, I feel passionate about sexual health and gender expression, which I believe relate intimately with the flourishing of sustainability principles in social work practice. My sustainability course, which prompted me to find and explore Get Lucky, allowed me to synthesize my personal interest in holistic ideas with my fervor for social work.

My approach entailed exploring the intersection of sustainability and social work through investigating Get Lucky and speaking with an employee and co-owner, Andi. This shop is not only quaint and welcoming of customers, but also inclusive of the diversity of sexual expressions within humanity. Even the product availability illustrates acceptance of multiplicity with the displays of different heating and cooling lubricants, LGBTQI+-friendly pornographic films, and erotic magazines highlighting the beauty of the human form.

Get Lucky strives to sell local, body safe products which meet the needs of a plethora of sexual cravings. Get Lucky, through educational seminars and knowledgeable staff, actively seeks to teach customers about sexual health, including lesser known risks like the toxicity of certain materials often found in sex toys (Andi, personal communication, March 10, 2012). Through a diverse, interactive display, Get Lucky offers opportunities for customers to learn about community resources as well. The mission of Get Lucky is to provide high quality, natural, safe sex toys, kinks, and practicalities to men, women, transgendered, transsexual, and all additional expressions of sexuality, at affordable prices, while simultaneously engaging in community partnerships and community-building activities. For example, they sell Sir Richard’s Condoms, which are non-latex, vegan, non-glycerin, non-spermicidal, paraben-free condoms that benefit condom users around the world with a matching purchase donation.

Get Lucky also engages in both fundraising activities and sponsorships of community partners. 10% Tuesdays are a fundraising effort in which 10% of total sales are donated to a nonprofit organization focused on issues of individual and community health, wellness, education, and equality. In Other Words feminist book store and community center, The Q Center, and Portland Women’s Crisis Line are examples of nonprofit organizations that have or continue to benefit from partnerships with Get Lucky. According to Andi, last fiscal year Get Lucky donated over $3000 in gift certificates and merchandise to a range of fundraising activities and over $4000 in cash to several community partners (Andi, personal communication, March 10, 2012). Get Lucky participates in a variety of community events, including Pride, Kink Fest, and The Vagina Monologues. With intentionality, Get Lucky achieves the all-important goal of uniting different community factions together with the purpose of promoting sexual health and acceptance of diverse sexual expression in the general population.    

Finally, as a for-profit entity, Get Lucky actively engages in sustainable marketing, which means looking at the big picture of economic and community benefits through a holistic lens, rather than assessing value from a narrow capitalistic profit-driven perspective (Bridges & Wilhelm, 2008, p. 35). Bridges and Wilhelm (2008) write about various avenues for sustainable development within the business sector:

Necessary changes include lengthening corporate time horizons for return on investment and valuing financial continuity over profit. Product development strategies will need to take means of production and channel members’ activities into account (e.g., suppliers must not pollute or use child labor). Adoption of environmental accounting methods to assess costs associated with product production, ownership, use, and disposal will ensure that environmental and social costs are taken into consideration in product pricing decisions. Marketers must also be willing to manage consumer demand and expectations downward, practicing demarketing, or encouraging when necessary to encourage responsible consumption (e.g., promoting energy conservation or decreased usage of certain ecotourism destinations (p. 35).

Get Lucky is performing sustainable business practices, at both the micro and mezzo levels, while promoting safe sexual practices and encouraging society to include all sexual expressions.

Conclusion

Although Get Lucky does not explicitly state social work ideals in its mission, it does achieve Coates’s (2003) three main objectives for social work-oriented sustainable practice. Social work is called to nurture every being while honoring diverse expressivity, recognize the value of all creation, and promote supportive community living with equality as a center pillar of existence (Coates, 2003, p.156). Get Lucky engages in and promotes sustainable social work ideals through the lens of sexuality and human expression. From a learning and growth perspective, writing about a for-profit, sex boutique truly helped me expand my view of social work and sustainability from a traditional outlook to a more innovative and ground-breaking perspective. I believe that this paper inspired me to examine the liberal angles of life, which increases my ability to practice social work in a sustainable fashion.

Case Study 3: Emergency Department Consistent Care Program

Submitted by Diana L. Nulliner, MSW

Western societies, including the U.S., have experienced vast growth and development over the last century and a half, which has resulted in an increased standard of living that creates the illusion that “the good life” is available to everyone (Coates, 2003). However, while some have thrived, others have suffered the effects of environmental degradation and social inequalities that threaten health and well-being on a large scale The prevailing capitalist laissez-faire ideology in the United States puts each person in competition to attain the best for “individual growth, individual benefit and individual rights” instead of community wellness (Coates, 2003, p. 33). Some people and groups are marginalized, and left to believe they do not fit into society because their identities do not match, or are not valued by, more powerful members of society, and a “dominance-or-submission” paradigm largely defines life’s experiences (Coates, 2003). Those who struggle to belong are subjected to environmental, social, and economic disparities of enormous proportions. People who experience inequalities often resort to desperate measures to get their needs met and stabilize their lives (Mary, 2008). A lack of resources in communities nationwide has left hospitals experiencing frequent and inappropriate use of the Emergency Department (ED) (CHOICE Regional Health Network, 2010).

Several factors have contributed to the rise of inappropriate use of the ED, including exorbitant health care costs, an increase in patients who are uninsured, and declining availability of social service resources. Medical programs for older and lower-income people (Medicare and Medicaid) are limited in coverage, and there is a shortage of service providers who are willing to accept payments from these programs. In short, the existing health care system makes it difficult to get a patient’s needs met (CHOICE Regional Health Network, 2010).

Case Description

It has been shown that people who frequent the ED have complex issues stemming from substance use, mental health, and/or severe and persistent physical health problems (Ovens & Chan, 2001; Sun, Burstin, & Brennan, 2003). In 2004, Washington State Department of Social and Health Services found that 89% of people who frequent the ED had a co-occurring disorder of substance use, mental health, and/or medical health conditions. The lives of people who frequent the ED are often further complicated by poverty, homelessness, chaotic living conditions, unemployment, and social ostracism (Corporation for Supportive Housing, 2009).

The United States government has encouraged hospitals to become more creative in finding solutions to overuse of ED services (CHOICE Regional Health Network, 2010). Thus, Legacy Salmon Creek (LSC) ED in Clark County, Vancouver, Washington partnered with Portland State University in the summer of 2011 to create the Emergency Department Consistent Care Program (EDCCP). A set of program goals were developed, including “reducing inappropriate use of the ED, improving the health status of individuals who frequent the ED,” and increasing coordination and integration of safety net services in the community (CHOICE Regional Health Network, 2010). The EDCCP sought to create sustainable communities by focusing on economic and social relationships that align with a healthy environment, and by basing the efforts upon the principle of equality.

The EDCCP is coordinated by social workers, which is ideal because the profession is committed to endeavors of human wellness for vulnerable and oppressed populations. The Preamble of the National Association of Social Workers Code of Ethics (2009) states, “The primary mission of the social work profession is to enhance human well-being, and help meet the basic human needs of all people, with particular attention to the needs and empowerment of people who are vulnerable, oppressed, and living in poverty” (National Association of Social Workers, 2009). The EDCCP’s core mission is to enhance the well-being of patients by creating care plans with people who are vulnerable and oppressed, and advocating for additional resources to promote their long-term health. Thus, the EDCCP supervisor wanted a social worker to coordinate the program because of the stance social workers have regarding the core values of service, social justice, dignity and worth of the person, importance of human relationships, integrity, and competence. The complex issues of patients involved with the EDCCP required a commitment to ethical and transformative practice to make a difference with vulnerable and oppressed populations–and social work professionals are well equipped to meet those needs.

Conclusion

The EDCCP has been in existence for a short time but has accomplished some positive outcomes. From six months pre-intervention to six month post-intervention, there was a decrease in overall ED visits. While it is not clear if the reduction is due to improved health outcomes, providers in the ED recognize the positive impacts of the program because they find the care plans helpful when working with patients. They have also observed that the majority of patients appear to appreciate the services the care plans offer. The EDCCP, with a focus on reducing disparities and ensuring access to quality health care for society’s most vulnerable citizens, offers an excellent example of how social work practice can work to eliminate social injustices by promoting principles that result in sustainable communities that are healthy and beneficial for everyone.

Discussion

The case studies presented in this paper, and the 12 that were not included, describe the unique contributions of community organizations to a more healthy, just, and sustainable society. The issues they address vary widely—physical and mental health, homelessness, environmental justice, sexual education and expression, domestic violence, and youth development—but with the common framework and language of sustainability, and with the tools and accessibility of case study methods, the participating MSW students were able to provide descriptions and analyses of their cases that helped them (the student researchers) and help us (the readers) better understand what sustainability in social work practice looks like currently, and what it could look like in the future.

The process of conducting the case studies provided several benefits for the student researchers. First, it provided students an opportunity to develop a common language with which to communicate their ideas about sustainability in social work practice. For example, when students addressed environmental sustainability, they no longer felt constrained by the limited ideas about environment that prevail in traditional social work—where environment most often means the social environment—and in popular discourse about sustainability, which tends to focus on pollution, contamination, waste, and resource use. Instead, they felt free to address the natural, social, and built environments, and attend to complexities of context, culture, and other factors that are essential to consider across all aspects of environment. The description of Central City Concern’s programs is an excellent example, where a physical and social environment that previously afforded no safe shelter or health care for homeless individuals was transformed to provide a welcoming space for healing, education, social gatherings, support, fresh healthy foods, and temporary shelter—all of which contribute to the goal of promoting well-being and social justice in an under-resourced and traditionally marginalized community.

The case study project also provided a space for students who had never thought about the relationship between social work and sustainability to try out new concepts and theories. By the end of the term, students displayed an academic exuberance, excited by new ways of thinking about familiar problems. The student that explored Get Lucky said the assignment gave her an opportunity to look at social work in a new way, and to challenge widely accepted definitions and boundaries to find unique and creative approaches amid complex social dynamics. A fundamental shift away from modernism toward a more cooperative and inclusive social work practice will be difficult and uncomfortable, but it will also allow us to use the power of interdisciplinary collaboration and large scale systems thinking to complement or replace the knowledge that has developed and shaped the profession for the last century.

For students with more prior experience thinking about sustainability, the project was valuable in a different way. The author of the Central City Concern case study said the project “validated my previous thoughts about sustainability and elevated my understanding of core principles to further inform my practice. And, it allowed for a practical application of sustainability principles, which afforded me the opportunity to be intentional with my analysis.” Fortunately, the accessibility of case study methods and the GRI G3.1 assessment framework made the assignment manageable for students with little familiarity or experience with sustainability concepts, but the power and flexibility of both the methods and framework also provided ample opportunity for every student in the class to challenge themselves to explore a particular area of social work practice more deeply and comprehensively than they had before.

For the social work field more generally, these case studies demonstrate the advantages of exploring the value and impact of social service and social justice programs through a sustainability lens. In the case of Central City Concern, a range of social, environmental, and economic benefits were identified beyond the program’s primary areas of focus. In addition to reducing overuse of hospitalization and providing critical medical and case management services for clients, CCC’s programs also incorporated significant prevention components that reduce the economic costs to society of incarceration and hospitalization, provide individuals with the skills and resources to reduce the social, physical, and psychological effects of homelessness, and create a community environment that is safer, cleaner, and healthier for everyone.

Students also reported some significant challenges with the case study assignment that are worth noting and considering. While the breadth of topics and concerns addressed by sustainability frameworks provide opportunities to apply sustainability concepts widely across fields and disciplines, that same comprehensiveness makes it challenging for students to establish parameters for the analyses in their case studies. For example, is an office recycling program as important to describe as sustainable retrofitting of office buildings? And what is the relative value and significance of various social improvements within an agency or a community? If a case study can’t include everything, how does one decide what to include and what to exclude? This dilemma is not unique to students or to this assignment. Professionals who assess sustainability performance and make recommendations for improving sustainable practices must continuously make these difficult, value-laden decisions in which some aspects of sustainability are emphasized and privileged over others.

Another challenge students faced with this assignment was the difficulty of collecting information on and becoming familiar with large and complex organizations in a short enough time to complete an analysis and a paper in one academic term (10 weeks). Because case studies traditionally draw upon multiple sources of data, students had to access archives, review documents, schedule and conduct interviews, among other tasks. Several students voiced frustration that the depth of their analyses suffered because of the time constraints they experienced. It is worth considering possible adaptations to the case study assignment that would ease some of these challenges, such as having students work in small research teams, sharing the responsibilities of data collection and analysis.

One final drawback of the time constraint was that it prevented students from soliciting feedback from the organizations with regard to their findings. While most students included interviews with staff as a key source of data and were able to share their analyses and final papers with the organizations they studied, it would have been instructive to learn how employees of the organizations understood and responded to the final conclusions and recommendations. For example, with more time, students could have explored questions such as: In what ways do employees find a sustainability framework relevant for their work, and why? What plans, if any, do employees have for incorporating ideas and recommendations from the reports into their work? What potential benefits and obstacles would there be to doing so?

Social work educators have an opportunity, and arguably an obligation, to expand the scope of social work curriculum beyond the traditional limits, to acknowledge and address the risks that unsustainable social and economic systems present in our communities. At a time when climate change is exacerbating global social, economic, and environmental crises, and when the world’s most vulnerable people are certain to suffer “first and worst” (Ki-Moon, 2013) from the effects of climate change and environmental degradation, social workers must be ready to think bigger and more comprehensively about issues like poverty, health, and justice than they have in the past. Sustainability concepts offer an attractive and accessible option, and one that is well-aligned with the primary values and goals of the social work profession. On a practical level, social work educators must provide many more opportunities for students to learn the content and processes associated with sustainable approaches to social work practice, and it is our hope that the case study assignment, as well as the case studies presented in this paper, can help inspire some significant movement in the right direction.

References

Bridges, C. M., & Wilhelm, W. B. (2008). Going beyond green: the ”why and how” of integrating sustainability into the marketing curriculum. Journal of Marketing Education, 30, 33-46.

Central City Concern. (n.d.). About Central City Concern. Retrieved from: http://www.centralcityconcern.org/ccc/.

Chiseri-Strater, E. (1996). Turning in upon ourselves: Positionality, subjectivity, and reflexivity in case study and ethnographic research. In P. Mortensen & G.E. Kirsch (Eds.), Ethics and representation in qualitative studies of literacy (pp. 115- 113). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

CHOICE Regional Health Network. (2010). Emergency department consistent care program at Providence St. Peter Hospital: An evaluative report. Retrieved from: http://crhn.org/www/Files/EDCCPEvaluation2010.

Coates, J. (2004). Ecology and social work: Toward a new paradigm. Winnipeg, MB: Fernwood.

Coates, J. & Gray, M. (2012). The environment and social work: An overview and introduction. International Journal of Social Welfare, 21, p. 230-238.

Corporation for Supportive Housing. (2009). Health care reform: Solutions that make sense.        Retrieved from: http//documents.csh.org.

Decker, J. (2010, October). Developing sustainable graduate social work education in Tbilisi, Georgia. Paper presented at the Annual Program Meeting of the Council on Social Work Education, Portland, OR.

Garske, G. G., & Williams, B. T. (1999). The financial costs of severe mental illness. Journal of Rehabilitation,65,4.

Grise-Owens, E., Miller, J. J., & Owens, L. W., (2014). Responding to global shifts: Meta-practice as a relevant social work practice paradigm. Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 34, 1, p. 46-59.

Hawkins, C. A., Norton, C. L., & Noble, D. N. (2010, October). Sustainability and human rights: Incorporating environmental justice into social work education. Paper presented at the Annual Program Meeting of the Council on Social Work Education, Portland, OR.

Heinsch, M. (2012). Getting down to earth: Finding a place for nature in social work practice. International Journal of Social Welfare, 21, 309-318.

Jones, K. R., Keller, T. E., & Ossowski, J. D. (2010, October). The role of youth mentoring programs in promoting sustainable communities. Paper presented at the Annual Program Meeting of the Council on Social Work Education, Portland, OR.

Jones, P. (2010). Responding to the ecological crisis: Transformative pathways for social work education. Journal of Social Work Education, 46, 67-84.

Karp, D. A., & Tanarugsachock, V. (2000). Mental illness, caregiving, and emotion management. Qualitative Health Research,10, 6-25.

Kemp, S. P. (2011). Recentering environment in social work: Necessity, opportunity, challenge. British Journal of Social Work, 41, 1198-1210.

Mary, N. (2008). Social work in a sustainable world. Chicago: Lyceum Books.

Ki-Moon, B. (2013, November). Secretary-General’s remarks. Speech presented at COP19 Momentum for Change event, Warsaw, Poland.

McKenzie, S. (2004). Social sustainability: Towards some definitions. Working paper series No. 27. Magill, Australia: University of South Australia, Hawke Research Institute.

McKinnon, J. (2008). Exploring the nexus between social work and the environment. Australian Social Work, 61, 256-268.

Markowitz, F.E. (2006). Psychiatric hospital capacity, homelessness, and crime and arrest rates. Criminology,44,45-72.

Miller, S. E., Hayward, R. A., & Shaw, T. V., (2013). Environmental shifts for social work: A principles approach. International Journal of Social Welfare, 21, 270-277.

Mudd, H. & Eastridge, D. (2010, October). Promoting sustainability: Reframing geriatric education toward a vintage paradigm. Paper presented at the Annual Program Meeting of the Council on Social Work Education, Portland, OR.

National Association of Social Workers. (2006). Social work speaks: National Association of Social Workers Policy Statements, 2006-2009. Washington, D.C.: NASW Press.

National Association of Social Workers. (2009). National Association of Social Workers Code of Ethics. Retrieved from: http://www.naswdc.org/pubs/code/default.asp.

Norton, C. L. (2012). Social work and the environment: An ecosocial approach. International Journal of Social Welfare, 21, 299-308.

Ovens, H., & Chan, B. (2001). Heavy users of emergency services: A population-based review. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 165, 1050-51.

Peeters, J. (2011). The place of social work in sustainable development: Towards ecosocial practice. International Journal of Social Welfare, 21, 287-298.

Reisch, M. (2013). Social work education and the neo-liberal challenge: The US response to increasing global inequality. Social Work Education: The International Journal, 32, 715-733.

Roca, L. C. & Searcy, C. (2012). An analysis of indicators disclosed in corporate sustainability reports. Journal of Cleaner Production, 20, 103-108.

Schmitz, C. L., Matyók, T., Sloan, L. M., & James, C. (2012). The relationship between social work and environmental sustainability: Implications for interdisciplinary practice. Social Work Education: The International Journal, 21, 278-286.

Stake, R. E. (1978). The case study method in social inquiry. Educational Researcher, 7, 5-8.

Sun, B. C., Burstin, H. R., & Brennan, T. A. (2003). Predictors and outcomes of frequent emergency department users. Academic Emergency Medicine, 10, 320-8.

Swartz, J. A., & Lurigio, A. J. (2007). Serious mental illness and arrest: The generalized mediating effect of substance use. Crime & Delinquency,53, 581-604.

Trinidad, A. (2010, October). Indigenizing the sustainability movement through critical indigenous pedagogy of place. Paper presented at the Annual Program Meeting of the Council on Social Work Education, Portland, OR.

Yin, R. K. (2013). Case study research: Design and methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

 

 

 

 


TAGS: case study, curriculum, higher education, pedagogy, Social Sustainability, social work



0 Replies to “Project Management Case Study Assignment Social Work”

Lascia un Commento

L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *