The policies that are in efect today For the educa±onal programs that are passed in the state and Federalgovernment are not working as planned. Our Failure to educate our children properly makes our country’s ability to thrive in today’s global economy at risk. Our educa±onal Failure is pu²ng this countries global posi±on and physical saFety in dire straits. Looking at the results oF the 2009 Program ForInterna±onal Students Assessment (PISA), that measures the perFormance oF 15 year olds in reading, mathema±cs and science every three years. The United States ranks Fourteenth in reading, twenty-³´h in math and seventh in science. As seen by the results oF these assessments, the efec±veness oF our educa±onal policies is not working. The American µederalism’s Cons±tu±onal Framework is about equal authority between states and the Federal government, but a´er the 1930’s, it started to change to just the opposite, where the Federal government was having more authority over the states. With the No
2 Same-Sex Marriage, the Defense of Marriage Act, and Federalism The Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) has helped to generate a lot of political tensions throughout the years. Rothstein (1997) chronicles that the act was enacted by Congress in response to Hawaii’s 1996 decision that stated that banning same-sex marriages is unconstitutional discrimination on the grounds of sex or gender. According to Levin-Waldman (2012), federalism can be defined as a “governmental system whereby power and authority are shared by national and state governments, with ultimate authority derived from the people” (glossary). The decision was a state-level decision, and marriages are under the state’s territory of power. It should have been perfectly fine for Hawaii to deem bans on same-sex marriage as unconstitutional, and allow same-sex marriages in the state. Since the climate for liberalism was not as prominent as it is in modern-day society, Congress responded with the Defense of Marriage Act. The act defined marriage as only being legal if it is between a man and a woman. The federal legislation caused same-sex marriages to be banned at a federal level throughout our nation. The History, Legislation, Benefits, and Drawbacks of the DOMA and Federalism The fight over whether homosexuals should be allowed to marry has been a long and tireless battle.