AMA (American Medical Association) Reference Citation Format
This tip sheet contains most frequently requested information. For complete style manual online see: AMA Manual of Style Online
or the print American Medical Association Manual of Style 10th Edition on Reserve in the Health Sciences Library, Call # WZ 345 A511 2007.
- Cited works are numbered in order of initial appearance in the text, and appear in the Reference List in numerical order.
- Use arabic superscript numerals outside periods and commas, and inside colons and semicolons.
- Authors’ names are inverted, and use only initials for first and middle names. No periods between initials.
- In article titles only the first word and proper nouns and abbreviations that are ordinarily capitalized are capitalized.
- Use accepted Index Medicus abbreviations of journal names (see the List of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus).
- For journals use issue numbers in parentheses after the volume number. If there is no issue number specify month before the year.
Diabetes mellitus is associated with a high risk of foot ulcers.1-3
Several interventions have been successful at increasing compliance.11,14-16
The data of Smith et al18 is further evidence of this effect.
As reported previously,1,3-6
The results were as follows4:
Reference List Examples:
Journal article (1-6 authors):
These resources provide guidance on how to cite sources using American Medical Association (AMA) Style, 10th Ed., including examples for print and electronic sources.
Contributors: Ashley Velázquez
Last Edited: 2017-09-05 01:48:05
This resource discusses references page formatting for the American Medical Association (AMA) style sheet. AMA was developed by the American Medical Association for the purpose of writing medical research.
References are found at the end of a manuscript and are titled “Reference List”, and each item should be listed in numerical order (two references should not be combined under a single reference number) as opposed to alphabetically. Additionally, each item should be single-spaced.
AuthorLastname, FirstInitial. Title in sentence case. Journal Title in Title Case. Year; Issue#: PP-PP.
When writing up your references list, be sure to always include the last name and the first and middle initial of the authors without punctuation. However, do use a comma to separate more than one author in a single bibliographic group (e.g., Wheeler T, Watkins PJ).
Use sentence case for all titles (capitalize only the first word of the title). Abbreviate and italicize names of journals according to the listing in the National Library of Medicine database.
Additionally, each reference is divided with periods into bibliographic groups; each bibliographic group contains bibliographic elements, which may be separated using the following punctuation marks:
- A comma: if the items are sub-elements of a bibliographic element or a set of closely related elements (e.g., the authors’ names).
- A semicolon: if the elements in the bibliographic group are different (e.g., between the publisher’s name and the copyright year) or if there are multiple occurrences of logically related elements within a group; also, before volume identification data.
- A colon: before the publisher’s name, between the title and the subtitle, and after a connective phrase (e.g., “In”, “Presented at”).
See the following examples:
1. Wheeler T, Watkins PJ. Cardic denervation in diabetes. BMJ. 1973;4:584-586.
2. O'Keefe M, Coat S. Consulting parents on childhood obesity and implications for medical student learning. J Paediatr Child Health. 2009;45(10), 573-576.