Essay On How To Bulid


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Building A House

     The process of building a house is a very complex and difficult task. In the following paragraphs, I will be explaining the many different steps that are required to build a house.
The first thing in building a house is selecting a lot and lot preparation. The land has to be cleared of trees and brush and graded to ensure a level building area. This process is usually called excavating and grading. This is usually a very fast process but can be costly depending on the job.
Also the land has to perk which means the land is not too wet and is safe for a structure and allows a septic tank to be installed that will function properly.
The next step is to have the land surveyed. When the land…show more content…

When the framing crew is finished, the framing has to be inspected and passed before the next process can begin.
The next process is for the electricians and plumbers to begin. The electricians will completely wire the house while the plumbers will only put in the first stage of pipes. The reason for not completely plumbing is because the showers, sinks, and toilets are the very last items to be installed.
After the wiring and preliminary plumbing are complete, insulation and installing the windows on the house are done. Using a good insulation and good windows will help reduce the heating and cooling costs of the homeowner. This is a step in building a house that you should spare no expense. The insulation and windows will pay for themselves in the long run.
Next, the builder will be hanging sheetrock. The sheetrock is the base interior wall covering. After the sheetrock is hung, the painting or wallcovering can be done. Once painting is completed, the carpet installation or other floor coverings can be installed. This is self-explanatory.
Inside trim will also be done during this phase. This includes various molding and window casings and other items to be done to the specifications of the homeowner.
Then builders will move to the outside of the house. The boxing and siding crews will start on the exterior of the house. Here you have to choose whether you want vinyl siding or one of the many of the other kinds of siding on the market today. There

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This page is for the lectures on arguments and essays in the Introduction to Philosophy Course given by Richard Holton at Edinburgh University.


Handout for Lecture One: Active Reading; The Structure of Arguments; Three Kinds of Argument for a Conclusion; Refutations

Sample Essays

Below are links to two sample essays: one very much better than the other. I wrote them both, but did so in the light of quite a lot of experience of the real thing. Neither of them is like a real essay, since they do not make any reference to the literature. I wanted to focus on what students find hardest, namely, presenting an argument. They both attempt to answer the same question:

    Suppose that two babies are born conjoined, and sharing certain organs. Operating will certainly kill the weaker of them; but left without intervention they will very probably both die. Is it permissible to operate? Is it obligatory?

Both essays use similar arguments, and reach similar conclusions. Both are of a similar length (around 900 words). The overwhelming difference between them is one of structure. Have a look at the weaker essay first. Note how hard it is to follow the argument, or to make sense of why certain points are made. There are few discourse markers. The introduction does little more than repeat the question. Technical terms ('doctrine of double effect') are introduced without gloss. The second paragraph discusses issues that are irrelevant to the question, or at least, whose relevance would need to be established. A new consideration is introduced at the very end of the conclusion (the greatest happiness of the greatest number), and is never integrated into the essay. In places the arguments simply seem to miss the point (consider the discussion of the involuntary organ donor). Nonetheless, the materials are there for a reasonable essay.

Now look at the good essay. This isn't a brilliant piece of work. But it is clear and very well structured. There are no bits of dazzling originality, but there are some novel touches. The biggest contrast with the first essay is that at every point you know exactly where you are: you know exactly what is being argued for, and what the argument for it is. This is achieved at the cost of some elegance; but it's worth it. (Of course, if you can be clear and elegant, all the better. But that is a real skill.)

Bad Essay

Good Essay

Now have a think about how the bad essay might be improved, just by moving the materials around, and adding discourse markers. Here is a suggestion for how to do it:
Revised plan for Bad Essay

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