Sympathy means “to have compassion for, or feel sorry about, someone else’s sorrow or misfortunes”:
Empathy means “understanding or experiencing someone else’s emotions or experiences as if they were your own, or as a shared experience”:
When to Use Sympathy vs. Empathy
The word sympathy is a noun that means “to have compassion for, or feel sorry about, someone else’s sorrow or misfortunes” (as in “you have my sympathy”).
The word empathy is a noun that refers to “understanding or experiencing someone else’s emotions or experiences as if they were your own, or as a shared experience” (as in “empathy for a fellow patient”).
Examples of Sympathy vs. Empathy
(In this sentence, “sympathy” refers to feeling sorry for someone in distress.)
(In this sentence, “empathy” refers to understanding and sharing the emotion of another person.)
How to Remember the Difference
The difference between the meanings of the words sympathy and empathy is as much emotional as it is grammatical. Knowing which word to use for a given situation can be tricky.
A good rule of thumb is to determine which word to use based on the level of connection that the subject of the sentence feels with the object.
For example, if the subject identifies with, and shares the pain of, the object, “empathy” is the correct word to use: She knew that he had lost his father when he was very young, just like she had, and felt a deep empathy for him rise in her heart.
Instead, if the subject is aware of the object’s suffering but feels no direct connection other than sorrow for the object, “sympathy” is the right word to use: As he watched the hurricane footage from his warm, dry apartment, he felt sympathy for those losing their homes.
Theory Into Practice: Which Is Which?
Is the underlined word correct? See if you can tell.
Right: This is about that sorrow that comes from a large community for an individual person. It is general, and so “sympathy” should be used.
Wrong: She has gone through the same problems and can relate. She has a shared experience, and so “empathy” should be used.
In 1909, the psychologist Edward Titchener translated the German Einfühlung (‘feeling into’) into English as ‘empathy’. Empathy can be defined as a person’s ability to recognize and share the emotions of another person, fictional character, or sentient being. It involves, first, seeing someone else’s situation from his perspective, and, second, sharing his emotions, including, if any, his distress.
For me to share in someone else’s perspective, I must do more than merely put myself into his position. Instead, I must imagine myself as him, and, more than that, imagine myself as him in the particular situation in which he finds himself. I cannot empathize with an abstract or detached feeling. To empathize with a particular person, I need to have at least some knowledge of who he is and what he is doing or trying to do. As John Steinbeck wrote, ‘It means very little to know that a million Chinese are starving unless you know one Chinese who is starving.’
Empathy is often confused with pity, sympathy, and compassion, which are each reactions to the plight of others. Pity is a feeling of discomfort at the distress of one or more sentient beings, and often has paternalistic or condescending overtones. Implicit in the notion of pity is that its object does not deserve its plight, and, moreover, is unable to prevent, reverse, or overturn it. Pity is less engaged than empathy, sympathy, or compassion, amounting to little more than a conscious acknowledgement of the plight of its object.
Sympathy (‘fellow feeling’, ‘community of feeling’) is a feeling of care and concern for someone, often someone close, accompanied by a wish to see him better off or happier. Compared to pity, sympathy implies a greater sense of shared similarities together with a more profound personal engagement. However, sympathy, unlike empathy, does not involve a shared perspective or shared emotions, and while the facial expressions of sympathy do convey caring and concern, they do not convey shared distress. Sympathy and empathy often lead to each other, but not always. For instance, it is possible to sympathize with such things as hedgehogs and ladybirds, but not, strictly speaking, to empathize with them. Conversely, psychopaths with absolutely no sympathy for their victims can nonetheless make use of empathy to snare or torture them. Sympathy should also be distinguished from benevolence, which is a much more detached and impartial attitude.
Compassion (‘suffering with’) is more engaged than simple empathy, and is associated with an active desire to alleviate the suffering of its object. With empathy, I share your emotions; with compassion I not only share your emotions but also elevate them into a universal and transcending experience. Compassion, which builds upon empathy, is one of the main motivators of altruism.
You might also be interested in my related article: Does True Altruism Exist?
Neel Burton is author of Heaven and Hell: The Psychology of the Emotionsand other books.
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This neat infographic was designed by Robert Shelton, a psychologist in a Californian high school, upon reading this article.
Source: Robert Shelton
Source: Neel Burton