Creative and Critical Thinking in Language ClassroomsMuhammad Kamarul Kabilan
mkamarul [at] yahoo.com
University Technology MARA (Kedah, Malaysia)
The communicative approach to language teaching emphasizes the use of language, meaning and language as a communication tool and hypothesizes that learners become proficient by using the language and not just by learning about the language. However, it is the view of this writer that merely using the language and knowing the meaning is not enough. To become proficient in a language, learners need to use creative and critical thinking through the target language. This paper explains what is needed and how it is achieved.
IntroductionIn this paper, Paulo Freire's ideas and approach are adopted, especially the concepts of "Pedagogy of Questions" and "Problem-posing". I will attend to the questions of what teachers need in order to develop creative and critical language learners, and how they could achieve it. A couple of sample activities are given to substantiate the explanations.
BackgroundThe communicative approach to language teaching began to overshadow the systematic approach in the 1950s. The latter outlined that if learners are to be proficient in the language, they must master the mechanism by which the language works, and learn the language system. On the contrary the communicative approach emphasized that learners become proficient by using the language, and not by just merely learning about the language.
However, by only using and knowing the meaning, learners do not become proficient in the target language. I strongly believe that learners can only become proficient language users if they, besides using the language and knowing the meaning, could display creative and critical thinking through the language. This implies that the learners must be creative in their production of ideas, and critically support them with logical explanation, details and examples. Nevertheless, creative and critical thinking skills should not be taught separately as an isolated entity, but embedded in the subject matter and "woven into the curriculum" (Mirman and Tishman, 1988).
Creative and Critical Language LearnersFor the purpose of this paper, creative and critical language learners are defined in terms of the learners' cognitive abilities to carry out certain tasks effectively. The creative language learners should be able to combine responses or ideas in novel ways (Smith, Ward and Finke, 1995), and to use elaborate, intricate, and complex stimuli and thinking patterns (Feldman, 1997). As for the critical language learners, they must be able to carefully and deliberately determine to accept, reject or suspend judgment about a claim (Moore and Parker, 1986). Critical language learners must also be able to identify and cite good reasons for their opinions and answers, correct themselves and others' methods and procedures, and adapt to uniformities, regularities, irregular circumstances, special limitations, constraints and over-generalizations (Lipman, 1988).
What is NeededHaving said what is expected of creative and critical language learners, we ought to scrutinize the roles of the teachers as they have an enormous amount of responsibilities in classrooms. They determine and dictate the content, activities and processes of teaching and learning in classrooms. It is the teachers who decide on the aims, goals, and strategies of teaching to be implemented in classrooms. If teachers decide to produce learners who would obtain good results in their examinations, then their contents, activities and strategies of teaching would vastly differ from the ones who resolved to nurture creative and critical language learners. This has led me to conclude that the only element needed to address this issue is the change of teachers' attitudes towards of students, pedagogy, and themselves as teachers.
Attitude towards StudentsThere are teachers who regard learners as empty vessels, which need to be filled with knowledge. The teachers tend to assume that the learners do not have any, or little prior knowledge and experiences regarding the subject matter that is going to be taught in classrooms.These teachers ignore, knowingly or unknowingly, the individuality of students. They fail to understand and appreciate the learners' own unique experiences, and concepts, notions and views of the world. Teachers who do not acknowledge each learner's individuality will often lead a boring and unimaginative language classroom because of the minimal participation and involvement of learners. The learners will feel left out and assume their opinions and beliefs as not relevant or important enough to be heard in the classroom. Eventually, this would pave the way to a molding process of passive language learners, and be a cause to the detriment of creative and critical thinking.
Teachers could gain much by listening to the learners' opinions and beliefs. The obvious one being the enrichment of experience, ideas and thoughts in a discussion of an issue. For this to flow without hindrance, teachers should develop a mutual relationship with their learners. Freire (1973) described this relationship as "I-thou relationship between two subjects". This means that teachers need to consider learners as individuals who are equals in a situation of genuine two-way communication (Spener, 1990). Besides that, it must also involve respect (Smith, 1997) and characterizes the communication in a manner which is humble, open and focused on collaborative learning (Boyce, 1996). More importantly, the learners learn from the teacher, and the teacher learns from the learners.
Attitude towards PedagogyProducing critical and creative language learners is by no means an easy task, but it can be achieved by engaging the Pedagogy of Question, which was proposed by Freire (1970 & 1973). This pedagogy requires posing questions to learners and listening to learners' questions. This is a practice which forces and challenges the learners to think creatively and critically, and to adopt a critical attitude towards the world (Muhammad Kamarul Kabilan, 1999).
The current situation is that teachers widely practice the pedagogy of answers, whereby teachers provide the answers and solutions to learners. Most frequently, this is done subconsciously. They never realized that they are "spoon-feeding" the learners most of the time. By giving answers, teachers deny the learners the opportunities and the right to question, to doubt and to reject. In addition, the learners will not be exposed to challenges and stimulation of thoughts (Freire, in Bruss and Macedo, 1985). Freire added that teachers tend to adopt the pedagogy of answers because they are sometimes afraid of questions to which they are unsure of the answers, and also because maybe the questions do not correspond to the answers they already have. Thus, it is extremely vital that teachers have positive beliefs and attitudes towards questions. They should also be prepared to ask questions in different ways in order to enhance the cognitive development of learners. Costa and Marzano (1987) demonstrated this by using specific terminology, posing critical questions and creating new labels to structure perceptions (Appendix 1).
Attitude towards Themselves (as Teachers)Teachers' beliefs and attitudes about themselves, and their functions in language classrooms have momentous implications for learners' ability to think creatively and critically. If the teachers think that their primary roles are to teach and provide answers and information, then the learners are exposed to the culture of "spoon-feeding". Eventually, the learners" ability to look for answers and solutions, and to inquire, to decide, to question, to reject and to accept ideas will greatly diminish.
Teachers need to believe that their major roles are to think, guide, initiate, facilitate and encourage the learners. This will put them in a right frame of mind and lead the learners into becoming a community of collaborative inquirers.
How It Is AchievedI propose Freire's problem-posing methodology to develop critical and creative language learners. This method is based on the life situations and realities of learners whereby their life situations are made into problem-solving situations. It concentrates on showing learners that they have the right to ask questions. The process of problem-solving begins when the teacher listens to learners' issues. Next, the teacher selects and brings familiar situations to students in a pictorial form. Then, the teacher asks series of inductive questions (from concrete to analytical) regarding the discussion of the situation. In that discussion, the learners should experience five steps of the problem-posing methodology (Nixon-Ponder, 1995):
- Describe the content of discussion
- Define the problem
- Personalize the problem
- Discuss the problem
- Discuss the alternatives of the problem
Besides the above, decision making processes could also be used to sow the seeds of creative and critical thinking into language learners (See Sample Activity B: Decision-Making). First of all, the teacher needs to identify common but real situations or problems to be discussed by the learners. Then the three steps of decision-making strategies are used (Mirman and Tishman, 1988):
- Find creative options to the situations or problems
- List reasons for and against the most promising options, and
- Make a careful choice out of list of reasons
ConclusionThe fundamental issue, which most teachers tend to ignore, is the capabilities of their learners. If teachers continue to disregard learners' views and opinions, or suppress them without ever giving the learners the chance to express themselves, then the learners would not be able to train and use their thinking skills. Teachers should facilitate and encourage creative and critical thinking skills by viewing their learners differently from what they had presumed. They also need to change their pedagogical views and adopt a more flexible attitude towards their teaching and not be too concentrated and dependent on textbooks and their schools' aspirations, which are usually exam-oriented. What is more important is the aspirations of the learners and how teachers could exploit the potentials of their learners. Also needed is the change of teachers' views of themselves. They are not providers but thinkers who constantly think of what could be done to encourage creative and critical thinking in their learners.
- Boyce, M.E. (1996). Teaching Critically as an Act of Praxis and Resistance.http://newton.uor.edu/FacultyFolder/Mboyce/1CRIPTED.HTM
- Bruss, N. & Macedo, D.P. (1985). Toward a Pedagogy of the Question: Conversations with Paulo Freire. Journal of Education. 167(2), 7-21.
- Costa, A.L. & Marzano, R. (1987). Teaching the Language of Thinking. Educational Leadership. 45(2), 29-33.
- Feldman, R.S. (1997). Essentials of Understanding Psychology. New york: The McGraw Hill Company.
- Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: The Seabury Press.
- Freire, P. (1973). Education for Critical Consciousness. New York: The Seabury Press.
- Lipman, M. (1988). Critical Thinking: What It Can Be? Educational Leadership. 46(1), 38-43.
- Mirman, , J. & Tishman, S. (1988). Infusing Thinking through 'Connections'. Educational Leadership. 45(7), 64-65.
- Moore, B.N. & Parker, R. (1986). Critical Thinking. California: Mayfield Publishing Company.
- Muhammad Kamarul Kabilan, A. (May, 1999). Developing the Critical ESL Learner: The Freire's Way. Paper presented at 5th MELTA International Conference, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia.
- Nixon-Ponder, S. (1995). Using Problem-posing Dialogue in Adult Literacy Education. Teacher to Teacher. Washington: Department of Education. ERIC: 381677.
- Smith, M.K. (1997). Paulo Freire. The Informal Education Homepage.
- Spener, D. (1990). The Freirean Approach to Adult Literacy Education. National Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy Education (NCLE).
- Smith, S.M., Ward, T.B. & Finke, R.A. (1995). The Creative Cognition Approach. Cambridge MA: Bradford.
Using Precise Terminology to Encourage Thinking
|'Let's look at these two pictures.'||'Let's compare the two pictures'|
|'What do you think will happen when ...'||'What do you predict will happen when ...'|
|'What do you think of this story?'||'What conclusions can you draw about this story?'|
|'How can you explain ...?'||'What evidence do you have to support ...?'|
|'Let's work this problem.'||'Let's analyze this problem.'|
Adapted from: Costa & Marzano (1987)
Encouraging Learners to Think About Thinking
|'The verdict is, guilty as charged.'||'Describe the steps you took to arrive at that answer.'|
|'I don't know how to solve this question.'||'What can you do to get started?'|
|'I am ready to begin.'||'Describe your plan of action.'|
|'I like the large one the best.'||'What criteria are you using to make your choice?'|
|'I am finished.'||'How do you know you're correct?'|
Adapted from: Costa & Marzano (1987)
A Sample Activity A: Problem-posingTopic: Cleanliness
- Think creatively and critically
- To find solutions to problems based on logical reasons
- Why are there so many 'things' flying over the bin?
- Where have you seen this scenery?
- Do you feel that this picture reflects cleanliness? Why?
- What is the one thing that is needed to ensure cleanliness in the places that you have mentioned?
A Sample Activity B: Decision MakingTopic: Anwar Ibrahim's Corruption Trial
- Think creatively and critically
- Decision making based on logical reasons
But before you give your verdict, consider these procedures:
- Can this trial be thrown out? Why?
- Does this trial have to go on? Why?
- Is he guilty? Why?
- Is he innocent? Why?
- What is your verdict? Why?
- If found guilty, what is the sentence that you want to pass?
The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. VI, No. 6, June 2000
We often remark on the marvelous creativity of young children's drawings, dramatic play, and invented language. Children show imaginative use of color, themes, and flights of fancy in their language. As teachers, we play an important role in supporting children's ability in art, dramatic expression, and creative responses to problems.
Often, our primary goals are directed at keeping children healthy and safe, teaching cognitive skills such as shape and color recognition, encouraging prosocial behavior, and introducing basic literacy and numeration skills. With all the time that needs to be devoted to these areas, there is less opportunity to think about the importance of nurturing children's creative abilities. And yet, creative power increases a young child's desire to learn and supports intellectual development.
Ask five different teachers to define "creativity" and you'll probably get five different answers. One definition of creativity focuses on the process of "divergent thinking," which involves:
- the breaking up of old ideas
- making new connections
- enlarging the limits of knowledge
- the onset of wonderful ideas
When we encourage divergent thinking, we help to maintain children's motivation and passion for in-depth learning. Encouraging children to keep on generating new ideas fosters their creative-thinking abilities.
When children learn how to become comfortable with ambiguities, they are developing complex thinking skills. For example, Joey, an older toddler; was glad to be invited to his friend's birthday party, but he also felt grumpy because he did not get the toy train that his friend received as a birthday gift. Children need help to understand that it is not only possible, but acceptable, to hold contradictory or opposite ideas and feelings in their minds at the same time. Give children experiences in playing with ideas that may be ambiguous or uncertain.
You can help children understand that:
- Some feelings and wishes are the same as those of other people, and some are different.
- A friend may want to play the same game as you some of the time but not all of the time.
- You can do some things now, and some things later.
- One idea could be a good idea or not a good idea. (Singing songs is fun, but not at naptime when others are resting.)
- There are consequences, and alternatives, to actions. This kind of thinking sharpens reasoning skills and sparks a child's own creative solutions to conflicts.
To enhance children's creativity, keep the following in mind:
- One important way a child learns of his self-worth is through his interactions with you.
- Be generous in positive descriptions of children's work and ideas.
- Remain focused on the uniqueness of each child and the challenge to nurture her trust and creativity.
- Hold group meetings where children can freely express ideas, particularly in the area of problem solving.
Questions Without Answers
Socratic or open-ended questions are a great way to get children's creative juices flowing. These questions help a child distance himself from the here and now. Choices, comparisons, entertaining new ideas, and formulating personal responses to these questions are all-important ingredients in creative thinking.
Here are some open-ended questions to ask children to inspire their creativity:
- What could happen if it always rained on Saturdays?
- What if cars never wore out?
- If you saw a mouse in your backyard chewing your mother's favorite flowers, what would you do?
- Why don't we wake up with our hair neat and combed?
- What would happen if a cow, a bee, and a clover got together?
- What could happen if cats could bark?
- What could happen if all the shoes in the world were the same size?
Remember that some questions may be too difficult for a child who has had little related experience in the real world (some city children have never seen a cow or clover). Be sure to tailor your questions to the current experiential knowledge of the children. When possible, take children on a field trip, show them a video, or invite "experts" in different areas to come and talk to the class in order to expand children's background of experience.
It's interesting to explore ways of jump-starting children's creativity in different curriculum areas. Whether children are involved in art, dramatic-play, or music and movement activities, careful thought and planning can help them delve further into their creative-thinking abilities.
Dipping Deeper Through Art
Easel and finger painting while listening to classical music; drawing; clay work; making prints; slithering cornstarch goop between fingers-these are just a few of the art activities that promote creativity and are already staples of many early childhood classrooms. Sensitive observation will reveal creative discoveries. For example, a teacher may hand a large paintbrush and a cup of blue paint to each of a small group of preschoolers. She may notice as one dabs blue on her paper. In dreamy pleasure, the child watches the patch of blue on her paper. She then dips her brush and watches wide-eyed as the blue of her initial swath deepens in color, and great drips of blue paint slowly creep down the easel paper.-She marvels at creating a deeper tint of blue.
In her observation, the teacher was able to appreciate the child's discovery that layering more and more color changes the intensity of the color and the amount of the drip. Your sensitivity to the power of a child's discovery is what unlocks the child's passionate commitment and delight that are bedrock requirements for creativity.
Some little folks need to be in intense active movement a lot of the time. For them, it might be wise to encourage dance and movement as often as possible. Divide children into two groups. Have one group "make music" by clapping their hands, playing rhythm instruments, or tapping their feet on the floor. Ask the second group to listen carefully to the rhythms provided by their peers and dance to the music in their own inventive ways.
Children learn to represent things by using their bodies in space. Toddlers love to try to hop like a bunny. Older children might enjoy moving like a turtle, a dragonfly, or an elephant. Ask the children whether they can use their bodies to represent emotions, such as joy, anger, or surprise.
Creative thinking is implicit in many cooperative games, such as "Big Snake." In this game, children stretch out on their stomachs and hold the ankles of the person in front of them to make a two-person snake. The "snake" slithers over on its belly to connect up to make a four-- person snake and so on. The children have to figure out how the snake could slither up on a mountain or figure out a way to flip over the whole snake on its back without losing its parts.
"Imagine this" games permit children to take off on flights of fancy that require them to retrieve information from memory, compare and contrast ideas, and make connections between disparate bits of information.
At rest time, you might let children conjure up different imaginary scenarios, such as being a fly busily walking across the ceiling. What are they looking for? How do the children on their cots look to the fly from its upside-down vantage point on the ceiling?
You can also ask children to pretend: "You can be any animal you wish. Which animal would you choose? What would you do all day long as that animal?"
Some creativity games, such as the "One Goes Back" game, help children learn more about themselves, including their preferences and reactions. In this game, you might ask:
"Suppose you were given these three objects (teacher names objects): Which one of the three would you give up if you had to give one back? Why? What could you do with the other two things? Could you use them together? How?"
The "Uses" game draws on children's ability to conjure up lots of unusual and unconventional uses for objects, such as a tin can, paper clip, or cardboard tube from a paper towel roll. When a teacher gave some men's ties to a group of 6-- year-olds, they pretended to use them as seatbelts while taking a plane trip. They also pretended the ties were slithery snakes crawling along the floor. Give children the chance to play out their imaginative scripts with such props and then enjoy your peek into the window of their creative conjuring!
Plan with children to create imaginative indoor scenarios to lift everyone's mood during dark winter days. For instance, try creating a summer picnic in the classroom. Spread a large sheet on the floor Put seashells and maybe a few handfuls of sand in shallow plastic tubs of water Work with children to prepare a variety of sandwiches and slices of fresh fruit. Ask parents to send in some summer clothing so that preschoolers can change into swimsuits and carry towels. Have a small plastic swimming pool on the floor After children "go for a swim," they can make sand pies or sort seashells on the edge of the "sand" sheet.
Read poetry! Brain researchers emphasize how important it is to wire in neural pathways with variety and richness of language interactions. "Use it or lose it" seems to be the rallying cry for brain development during the first years of life and "cells that fire together wire together." You can use poetry to encourage children to problem solve and to ask what is coming next.
Try this humorous and rollicking poem from the book Blackberry Ink by Eve Merriam (Turtleback Books, 1994; $10.15):
Bella had a new umbrella
Didn't want to lose it,
So when she walked out
in the rain
She didn't ever use it.
Her nose went sniff,
Her shoes went squish,
Her socks grew soggy,
Her glasses got foggy,
Her pockets filled with water
And a little green froggy.
All she could speak was a weak Kachoo!
But Bella's umbrella
Stayed nice and new.
Arranging for Creativity
How you set up your classroom paves the way for creative adventures. Provide enough space for a safe block corner and enough cars and blocks for creating highways and traffic jams. Have easels out and smocks with plastic flexible neck-- bands ready for children to put on when inspiration strikes. Try to have fewer time constraints for activities so that children's creative juices can flow unfettered by a classroom clock.
Although story-reading times and group times are wonderful ways to increase social cohesiveness, be aware of the implications of requiring all children to participate together for other planned activities. Children may be discovering on their own something that is not part of your specific plan for them. For example, if all the children are playing a game outdoors and one child wants to create a sandcastle, a flexible teacher will not be threatened by this personal choice. Perceptive teachers handle such individual needs in ways that nurture a child's growth rather than squash budding initiatives.
An indispensable classroom ingredient is the dramatic-play area. Teachers often ask themselves, "Can rigid dramatic-play scenarios be considered creative in any way?"
As they chase peers, some children play "monster" as other children screech and run away. The repetitive "monster" play requires no surprise scripts. Yet, the teacher who wants to promote creativity can help connect the stereotyped behavior of a given child with the larger world of imaginative play. We, as teachers, are constant observers and learn about each child's unique style, fears, strengths, and use of fantasy. Notice children's repetitive themes and how these serve to buffer them against anxiety. Question children to get a better understanding of their dramatic-play themes and wishes.
The relationships between teachers and children, how classroom time and space is organized, and materials available are important factors in the development of creativity. Classrooms where children are supported in their eagerness to explore relationships and materials without fear or disapproval from teachers or peers, where teachers are prepared to unearth resources to satisfy children's creative thirst to know, are classrooms where creativity is likely to blossom and grow.
Click here to view and download the Developmental Chart Children's Creative Development (PDF)